|MTRACE(8)||System Manager's Manual||MTRACE(8)|
] source [
mtraceutilizes a tracing feature implemented in multicast routers (
mroutedversion 3.3 and later) that is accessed via an extension to the IGMP protocol. A trace query is passed hop-by-hop along the reverse path from the receiver to the source, collecting hop addresses, packet counts, and routing error conditions along the path, and then the response is returned to the requestor. The only required parameter is the source host name or address. The default receiver is the host running mtrace, and the default group is "MBone Audio" (184.108.40.206), which is sufficient if packet loss statistics for a particular multicast group are not needed. These two optional parameters may be specified to test the path to some other receiver in a particular group, subject to some constraints as detailed below. The two parameters can be distinguished because the receiver is a unicast address and the group is a multicast address. The options are as follows:
mtraceis being run, or to a multicast address other than the one registered for this purpose (220.127.116.11).
traceroutetool to trace unicast network paths will not work for IP multicast because ICMP responses are specifically forbidden for multicast traffic. Instead, a tracing feature has been built into the multicast routers. This technique has the advantage that additional information about packet rates and losses can be accumulated while the number of packets sent is minimized. Since multicast uses reverse path forwarding, the trace is run backwards from the receiver to the source. A trace query packet is sent to the last hop multicast router (the leaf router for the desired receiver address). The last hop router builds a trace response packet, fills in a report for its hop, and forwards the trace packet using unicast to the router it believes is the previous hop for packets originating from the specified source. Each router along the path adds its report and forwards the packet. When the trace response packet reaches the first hop router (the router that is directly connected to the source's net), that router sends the completed response to the response destination address specified in the trace query. If some multicast router along the path does not implement the multicast traceroute feature or if there is some outage, then no response will be returned. To solve this problem, the trace query includes a maximum hop count field to limit the number of hops traced before the response is returned. That allows a partial path to be traced. The reports inserted by each router contain not only the address of the hop, but also the ttl required to forward and some flags to indicate routing errors, plus counts of the total number of packets on the incoming and outgoing interfaces and those forwarded for the specified group. Taking differences in these counts for two traces separated in time and comparing the output packet counts from one hop with the input packet counts of the next hop allows the calculation of packet rate and packet loss statistics for each hop to isolate congestion problems.
-toption). If the last hop router is known, it may also be addressed directly using the
-goption). Alternatively, if it is desired to trace a group that the receiver has not joined, but it is known that the last-hop router is a member of another group, the
-goption may also be used to specify a different multicast address for the trace query. When tracing from a multihomed host or router, the default receiver address may not be the desired interface for the path from the source. In that case, the desired interface should be specified explicitly as the receiver.
mtracefirst attempts to trace the full reverse path, unless the number of hops to trace is explicitly set with the
-moption. If there is no response within a 3 second timeout interval (changed with the
-moption), a "*" is printed and the probing switches to hop-by-hop mode. Trace queries are issued starting with a maximum hop count of one and increasing by one until the full path is traced or no response is received. At each hop, multiple probes are sent (default is three, changed with
-qoption). The first half of the attempts (default is one) are made with the unicast address of the host running
mtraceas the destination for the response. Since the unicast route may be blocked, the remainder of attempts request that the response be multicast to mtrace.mcast.net (18.104.22.168) with the ttl set to 32 more than what's needed to pass the thresholds seen so far along the path to the receiver. For the last quarter of the attempts (default is one), the ttl is increased by another 32 each time up to a maximum of 192. Alternatively, the ttl may be set explicitly with the
-toption and/or the initial unicast attempts can be forced to use multicast instead with the
-moption. For each attempt, if no response is received within the timeout, a "*" is printed. After the specified number of attempts have failed,
mtracewill try to query the next hop router with a DVMRP_ASK_NEIGHBORS2 request (as used by the
mrinfoprogram) to see what kind of router it is.
mtraceis in two sections. The first section is a short listing of the hops in the order they are queried, that is, in the reverse of the order from the source to the receiver. For each hop, a line is printed showing the hop number (counted negatively to indicate that this is the reverse path); the multicast routing protocol (DVMRP, MOSPF, PIM, etc.); the threshold required to forward data (to the previous hop in the listing as indicated by the up-arrow character); and the cumulative delay for the query to reach that hop (valid only if the clocks are synchronized). This first section ends with a line showing the round-trip time which measures the interval from when the query is issued until the response is received, both derived from the local system clock. A sample use and output might be:
oak.isi.edu 80# mtrace -l caraway.lcs.mit.edu 22.214.171.124 Mtrace from 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52 via group 184.108.40.206 Querying full reverse path... 0 oak.isi.edu (220.127.116.11) -1 cub.isi.edu (18.104.22.168) DVMRP thresh^ 1 3 ms -2 la.dart.net (22.214.171.124) DVMRP thresh^ 1 14 ms -3 dc.dart.net (126.96.36.199) DVMRP thresh^ 1 50 ms -4 bbn.dart.net (188.8.131.52) DVMRP thresh^ 1 63 ms -5 mit.dart.net (184.108.40.206) DVMRP thresh^ 1 71 ms -6 caraway.lcs.mit.edu (220.127.116.11) Round trip time 124 ms
-loption is given, the second section is repeated every 10 seconds and two lines are shown for each hop. The first line shows the statistics for the last 10 seconds, and the second line shows the cumulative statistics over the period since the initial trace, which is 101 seconds in the example below. The second section of the output is omitted if the
-s. option is set.
Waiting to accumulate statistics... Results after 101 seconds: Source Response Dest Packet Statistics For Only For Traffic 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 All Multicast Traffic From 126.96.36.199 | __/ rtt 125 ms Lost/Sent = Pct Rate To 188.8.131.52 v / hop 65 ms --------------------- ------------------ 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 mit.dart.net | ^ ttl 1 0/6 = --% 0 pps 0/2 = --% 0 pps v | hop 8 ms 1/52 = 2% 0 pps 0/18 = 0% 0 pps 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 bbn.dart.net | ^ ttl 2 0/6 = --% 0 pps 0/2 = --% 0 pps v | hop 12 ms 1/52 = 2% 0 pps 0/18 = 0% 0 pps 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 dc.dart.net | ^ ttl 3 0/271 = 0% 27 pps 0/2 = --% 0 pps v | hop 34 ms -1/2652 = 0% 26 pps 0/18 = 0% 0 pps 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 la.dart.net | ^ ttl 4 -2/831 = 0% 83 pps 0/2 = --% 0 pps v | hop 11 ms -3/8072 = 0% 79 pps 0/18 = 0% 0 pps 18.104.22.168 22.214.171.124 cub.isi.edu | \__ ttl 5 833 83 pps 2 0 pps v \ hop -8 ms 8075 79 pps 18 0 pps 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 Receiver Query Source
-goption. In this example, the trace of the full reverse path resulted in no response because there was a node running an old version of
mroutedthat did not implement the multicast traceroute function, so
mtraceswitched to hop-by-hop mode. The "Route pruned" error code indicates that traffic for group 184.108.40.206 would not be forwarded.
oak.isi.edu 108# mtrace -g 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 \ butter.lcs.mit.edu 22.214.171.124 Mtrace from 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52 via group 184.108.40.206 Querying full reverse path... * switching to hop-by-hop: 0 butter.lcs.mit.edu (220.127.116.11) -1 jam.lcs.mit.edu (18.104.22.168) DVMRP thresh^ 1 33 ms Route pruned -2 bbn.dart.net (22.214.171.124) DVMRP thresh^ 1 36 ms -3 dc.dart.net (126.96.36.199) DVMRP thresh^ 1 44 ms -4 darpa.dart.net (188.8.131.52) DVMRP thresh^ 16 47 ms -5 * * * noc.hpc.org (184.108.40.206) [mrouted 2.2] didn't respond Round trip time 95 ms
mroutedby Ajit Thyagarajan and Bill Fenner. The option syntax and the output format of
mtraceare modeled after the unicast traceroute(8) program written by Van Jacobson.
mroutedwill crash if a trace query is received via a unicast packet and
mroutedhas no route for the source address. Therefore, do not use the
-goption unless the target
mroutedhas been verified to be 3.4 or newer than 3.5.
|September 8, 2014||OpenBSD-current|