duplicate an existing file
oldd, int newd,
duplicates an existing object descriptor and returns its value to the
calling process (newd =
dup(oldd)). The argument
oldd is a small non-negative integer index in the
per-process descriptor table. The value must be less than the size of the
table, which is returned by
getdtablesize(3). The new descriptor returned by the call is the
lowest numbered descriptor currently not in use by the process.
The object referenced by the descriptor does not distinguish between oldd and newd in any way. Thus if newd and oldd are duplicate references to an open file, read(2), write(2) and lseek(2) calls all move a single pointer into the file, and append mode, non-blocking I/O and asynchronous I/O options are shared between the references. If a separate pointer into the file is desired, a different object reference to the file must be obtained by issuing an additional open(2) call. The close-on-exec flag on the new file descriptor is unset.
value of the new descriptor newd is specified. If this
descriptor is already in use, it is first deallocated as if a
call had been done first. When newd equals
dup2() just returns
without affecting the close-on-exec flag.
the value of the new descriptor and the close-on-exec flag on the new file
descriptor are specified: newd specifies the value and
O_CLOEXEC bit in flags
specifies the close-on-exec flag. Unlike
oldd and newd are equal then
dup3() fails. Otherwise, if
flags is zero then
identical to a call to
Upon successful completion, the value of the new descriptor is returned. The value -1 is returned if an error occurs in either call. The external variable errno indicates the cause of the error.
dup() will fail if:
- oldd is not a valid active descriptor.
- Too many descriptors are active.
will fail if:
- oldd is not a valid active descriptor or
newd is negative or greater than or equal to the
- A race condition with accept(2) or open(2) has been detected.
- An interrupt was received.
- An I/O error occurred while writing to the file system.
dup3() will return the
- oldd is equal to newd or flags is invalid.
accept(2), close(2), fcntl(2), getrlimit(2), open(2), pipe(2), socket(2), socketpair(2), getdtablesize(3)
conform to IEEE Std 1003.1-2008
function is expected to conform to a future revision of that standard.
dup() system call first appeared in
Version 3 AT&T UNIX,
dup2() in Version 7 AT&T
dup3() in OpenBSD