|man(1)||display manual pages|
|man(7)||legacy formatting language for manual pages|
|MAN(1)||General Commands Manual||MAN(1)|
man — display
man utility displays the manual page
entitled name. Pages may be selected according to a
specific category (section) or machine architecture
The options are as follows:
-c, most terminal devices
are unable to show the markup. To print the output of
man to the terminal with markup but without
using a pager, pipe it to
ul(1). To remove the markup,
pipe the output to col(1)
-ware ignored. This option implies
:’) separated list of directories. This option also overrides the environment variable
MANPATHand any directories specified in the man.conf(5) file.
:’) separated list of directories. These directories will be searched before those specified using the
MANPATHenvironment variable, the man.conf(5) file, or the default directories.
By default manual pages for all architectures are installed. Therefore this option can be used to view pages for one architecture whilst using another.
This option overrides the
-IKOTW are also supported and
are documented in mandoc(1).
-fkl are mutually exclusive and override
The search starts with the
-m argument if
provided, then continues with the
-M argument, the
MANPATH variable, the
manpath entries in the
man.conf(5) file, or with
by default. Within each of these, directories are searched in the order
provided. Within each directory, the search proceeds according to the
following list of sections: 1, 8, 6, 2, 3, 5, 7, 4, 9, 3p. The first match
found is shown.
database is used for looking up manual page entries. In cases where the
database is absent, outdated, or corrupt,
back to looking for files called
name.section. If both a
formatted and an unformatted version of the same manual page, for example
cat1/foo.0 and man1/foo.1,
exist in the same directory, only the unformatted version is used. The
database is kept up to date with
makewhatis(8), which is
run by the weekly(8)
Guidelines for writing man pages can be found in mdoc(7).
mansearches any subdirectories, with the same name as the current architecture, in every directory which it searches. Machine specific areas are checked before general areas. The current machine type may be overridden by setting the environment variable
MACHINEto the name of a specific architecture, or with the
MACHINEis case insensitive.
MANPAGERis used instead of the standard pagination program, less(1). If less(1) is used, the interactive
:tcommand can be used to go to the definitions of various terms, for example command line options, command modifiers, internal commands, environment variables, function names, preprocessor macros, errno(2) values, and some other emphasized words. Some terms may have defining text at more than one place. In that case, the less(1) interactive commands
Tcan be used to move to the next and to the previous place providing information about the term last searched for with
tag[=term] option documented in the mandoc(1) manual opens a manual page at the definition of a specific term rather than at the beginning.
MANPATHis a colon (‘
:’) separated list of directories. Invalid directories are ignored. Overridden by
-M, ignored if
MANPATH begins with a colon, it is
appended to the standard path; if it ends with a colon, it is prepended
to the standard path; or if it contains two adjacent colons, the
standard path is inserted between the colons.
MANPAGERis not defined. If neither PAGER nor MANPAGER is defined, less(1) is used.
man utility exits 0 on success,
and >0 if an error occurs. See
mandoc(1) for details.
Format a page for pasting extracts into an email message — avoid printing any UTF-8 characters, reduce the width to ease quoting in replies, and remove markup:
$ man -T ascii -O width=65 pledge | col -b
Read a typeset page in a PDF viewer:
$ MANPAGER=mupdf man -T pdf lpd
man utility is compliant with the
IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (“POSIX.1”)
The flags [
-aCcfhIKlMmOSsTWw], as well as
the environment variables
extensions to that specification.
man command first appeared in
Version 2 AT&T UNIX.
-w option first appeared in
Version 7 AT&T UNIX;
-m in 4.3BSD-Reno;
-h in 4.3BSD-Net/2;
-C in NetBSD 1.0;
OpenBSD 2.3; and
OpenBSD 5.7. The
first appeared in AT&T System III UNIX
and was also added in OpenBSD 5.7.
|July 20, 2020||OpenBSD-7.1|