USB IEEE 802.11b/g/n wireless network device
urtwn* at uhub? port ?
urtwn driver supports USB 2.0 wireless
network devices based on Realtek RTL8188CUS, RTL8188CE-VAU, RTL8188EUS,
RTL8188RU and RTL8192CU chipsets.
The RTL8188CUS and RTL8188EUS are highly integrated 802.11n adapters that combine a MAC, a 1T1R capable baseband and an RF in a single chip. They operate in the 2GHz spectrum only. The RTL8188RU is a high-power variant of the RTL8188CUS. The RTL8188CE-VAU is a PCI Express Mini Card adapter that attaches to the USB interface.
The RTL8192CU is a highly integrated multiple-in, multiple-out (MIMO) 802.11n adapter that combines a MAC, a 2T2R capable baseband and an RF in a single chip. It operates in the 2GHz spectrum only.
These are the modes the
urtwn driver can
- BSS mode
- Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when associating with an access point, through which all traffic passes. This mode is the default.
- monitor mode
- In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without associating with an access point. This disables the internal receive filter and enables the card to capture packets from networks which it wouldn't normally have access to, or to scan for access points.
urtwn driver can be configured to use
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) or Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA-PSK and
WPA2-PSK). WPA is the current encryption standard for wireless networks. It
is strongly recommended that WEP not be used as the sole mechanism to secure
wireless communication, due to serious weaknesses in it.
urtwn driver can be configured at
ifconfig(8) or on boot with
The driver needs at least version 1.1p0 of the following firmware files, which are loaded when an interface is attached:
A prepackaged version of the firmware can be installed using fw_update(1).
The following adapters should work:
- Airlink101 AWLL5088
- Alfa AWUS036NHR
- Aus. Linx AL-9604R1S
- B-Link BL-LW05-5R
- Belkin F7D1102 Surf Wireless Micro
- D-Link DWA-121
- D-Link DWA-123 rev D1
- D-Link DWA-125 rev D1
- D-Link DWA-131 rev B
- D-Link DWA-133
- D-Link DWA-135
- Digitus DN-7042
- Edimax EW-7811Un
- EDUP EP-N8508
- Elecom WDC-150SU2M
- Full River FR-W100NUL
- Hercules Wireless N USB Pico HWNUp-150
- IO-DATA WN-G150UM
- ISY IWL4000 USB Wireless Micro Adapter
- Netgear WNA1000A
- Patriot PCUSBW1150
- Planex GW-USEco300
- Planex GW-USNano2
- Planex GW-USValue-EZ
- Planex GW-USWExtreme
- POWCHIP POW-N18
- Prolink WN2201
- Sitecom WL-365
- Solwise NET-WL-UMD-606N
- TP-LINK TL-WN723N v3
- TP-LINK TL-WN725N v2
- TP-Link TL-WN821N v4
- TRENDnet TEW-648UBM
The following example scans for available networks:
# ifconfig urtwn0 scan
The following hostname.if(5) example configures urtwn0 to join network “mynwid”, using WPA key “mywpakey”, obtaining an IP address using DHCP:
nwid mynwid wpakey mywpakey dhcp
- urtwn0: error N, could not read firmware ...
- For some reason, the driver was unable to read the microcode file from the filesystem. The file might be missing or corrupted.
- urtwn0: device timeout
- A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmission did not complete in time. The driver will reset the hardware. This should not happen.
arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), usb(4), hostname.if(5), ifconfig(8)
urtwn driver first appeared in
urtwn driver was written by
urtwn driver does not support any of
the 802.11n capabilities offered by the adapters. Additional work is
ieee80211(9) before those features can be supported.