|AFTERBOOT(8)||System Manager's Manual||AFTERBOOT(8)|
afterboot — things
to check after the first complete boot
This document attempts to list items for the system administrator to check and set up after the installation and first complete boot of the system. The idea is to create a list of items that can be checked off so that you have a warm fuzzy feeling that something obvious has not been missed. A basic knowledge of UNIX is assumed, otherwise type:
Complete instructions for correcting and fixing items is not provided. There are manual pages and other methodologies available for doing that. For example, to view the man page for the ls(1) command, type:
$ man 1 ls
Administrators will rapidly become more familiar with OpenBSD if they get used to using the high quality manual pages.
By the time that you have installed your system, it is quite likely that bugs in the release have been found. Any security or reliability fixes can be found at http://www.openbsd.org/errata.html. It is recommended to check this page regularly.
Log in on the console, or over the network using ssh(1). For security reasons, it is bad practice to log in as root during regular use and maintenance of the system. Instead, administrators are encouraged to add a “regular” user, add said user to the “wheel” group, then use the su(1) and sudo(8) commands when root privileges are required.
The installation process provides an option to set up a user account. By default, accounts created via this method are automatically added to the “wheel” group. If that option was not used, see the paragraph Add new users below.
To deny root logins over the network, edit the
/etc/ssh/sshd_config file and set
PermitRootLogin to “no” (see
Change the password for the root user. (Note that throughout the documentation, the term “superuser” is a synonym for the root user.) Choose a password that has digits and special characters (not space) as well as from the upper and lower case alphabet. Do not choose any word in any language. It is common for an intruder to use dictionary attacks. Type the following command to change it:
$ /usr/bin/sudo /usr/bin/passwd root
It is a good idea to always specify the full path name for the
sudo(8) commands as this
inhibits the possibility of rogue files placed in your
PATH being executed for most shells. Furthermore,
PATH should never contain the
current directory (“.”).
Check the system date with the date(1) command. If needed, change the date, and/or change the symbolic link of /etc/localtime to the correct time zone in the /usr/share/zoneinfo directory. Alternatively, ntpd(8) can be used to automatically synchronize clocks with remote NTP servers.
Set the current date to January 27th, 1999 3:04pm:
# date 199901271504
Set the time zone to Atlantic Standard Time:
# ln -fs /usr/share/zoneinfo/Canada/Atlantic /etc/localtime
hostname command to verify that
the name of your machine is correct. See the man page for
hostname(1) if it needs to
be changed. You will also need to edit the
/etc/myname file to have it stick around for the
The first thing to do is an
ifconfig -a to
see if the network interfaces are properly configured. Correct by editing
interface is the interface name, e.g.,
“le0”) and then using
ifconfig(8) to manually
configure it if you do not wish to reboot. Read the
hostname.if(5) man page
for more information on the format of
The loopback interface will look something like:
lo0: flags=8009<UP,LOOPBACK,MULTICAST> mtu 32972 inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x3 inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000
an Ethernet interface something like:
le0: flags=9863<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> inet 192.168.4.52 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.4.255 inet6 fe80::5ef0:f0f0%le0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
and a PPP interface something like:
ppp0: flags=8051<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST> inet 188.8.131.52 --> 184.108.40.206 netmask 0xffff0000
See netstart(8) for instructions on configuring multicast routing.
See hostname.if(5) for instructions on configuring interfaces with DHCP.
netstat -rn command. The output
will look something like:
Routing tables Internet: Destination Gateway Flags Refs Use Mtu Interface default 192.168.4.254 UGS 0 11098028 - le0 127 127.0.0.1 UGRS 0 0 - lo0 127.0.0.1 127.0.0.1 UH 3 24 - lo0 192.168.4 link#1 UC 0 0 - le0 192.168.4.52 8:0:20:73:b8:4a UHL 1 6707 - le0 192.168.4.254 0:60:3e:99:67:ea UHL 1 0 - le0 Internet6: Destination Gateway Flags Refs Use Mtu Interface ::/96 ::1 UGRS 0 0 32972 lo0 => ::1 ::1 UH 4 0 32972 lo0 ::ffff:0.0.0.0/96 ::1 UGRS 0 0 32972 lo0 fc80::/10 ::1 UGRS 0 0 32972 lo0 fe80::/10 ::1 UGRS 0 0 32972 lo0 fe80::%le0/64 link#1 UC 0 0 1500 le0 fe80::%lo0/64 fe80::1%lo0 U 0 0 32972 lo0 ff01::/32 ::1 U 0 0 32972 lo0 ff02::%le0/32 link#1 UC 0 0 1500 le0 ff02::%lo0/32 fe80::1%lo0 UC 0 0 32972 lo0
The default gateway address is stored in the
/etc/mygate file. If you need to edit this file, a
painless way to reconfigure the network afterwards is
flush followed by a
sh -x /etc/netstart
command. Or, you may prefer to manually configure using a series of
route add and
commands (see route(8)). If
you run dhclient(8) you
will have to kill it by running
pkill dhclient after
you flush the routes.
If you wish to route packets between interfaces, add one or both of the following directives (depending on whether IPv4 or IPv6 routing is required) to /etc/sysctl.conf:
Packets are not forwarded by default, due to RFC requirements.
Most likely, the IP address of at least one domain name server was added to resolv.conf(5) while installing the system. If DHCP is in use, it will overwrite /etc/resolv.conf every time dhclient(8) is run but /etc/resolv.conf.tail can be used to add options and extra name servers to those received dynamically.
A hosts(5) file can be used if there is a need for system specific name resolution entries.
# cat /etc/fstab /dev/sd0a / ffs rw 1 1 /dev/sd0d /usr ffs rw,nodev 1 2 /dev/sd0e /var ffs rw,nodev,nosuid 1 3 /dev/sd0g /tmp ffs rw,nodev,nosuid 1 4 /dev/sd0h /home ffs rw,nodev,nosuid 1 5 # mount /dev/sd0a on / type ffs (local) /dev/sd0d on /usr type ffs (local, nodev) /dev/sd0e on /var type ffs (local, nodev, nosuid) /dev/sd0g on /tmp type ffs (local, nodev, nosuid) /dev/sd0h on /home type ffs (local, nodev, nosuid) # df Filesystem 1024-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on /dev/sd0a 22311 14589 6606 69% / /dev/sd0d 203399 150221 43008 78% /usr /dev/sd0e 10447 682 9242 7% /var /dev/sd0g 18823 2 17879 0% /tmp /dev/sd0h 7519 5255 1888 74% /home # pstat -s Device 512-blocks Used Avail Capacity Priority /dev/sd0b 131072 84656 46416 65% 0
You may wish to do NFS partitions now too, or you can do them later.
The system should be usable now, but you may wish to do more
customizing, such as adding users, etc. Many of the following sections may
be skipped if you are not using that package. We suggest that you
cd /etc and edit any files in that directory as
Note that the /etc/motd file is modified by /etc/rc whenever the system is booted. To keep any custom message intact, ensure that you leave two blank lines at the top, or your message will be overwritten.
Add users. There is an adduser(8) script. You may use vipw(8) to add users to the /etc/passwd file and edit /etc/group by hand to add new groups. You may also wish to edit /etc/login.conf and tune some of the limits documented in login.conf(5). The manual page for su(1) tells you to make sure to put people in the ‘wheel’ group if they need root access. For example:
The /etc/rc.* scripts are invoked at boot time, after single user mode has exited, and at shutdown. The whole process is controlled, more or less, by the master script /etc/rc. This script should not be changed by administrators.
/etc/rc is in turn influenced by the configuration variables present in /etc/rc.conf. Again this script should not be changed by administrators: site-specific changes should be made to (freshly created if necessary) /etc/rc.conf.local.
Any commands which should be run before the system sets its secure level should be made to /etc/rc.securelevel, and commands to be run after the system sets its secure level should be made to /etc/rc.local. Commands to be run before system shutdown should be set in /etc/rc.shutdown.
If you've installed X, you may want to turn on xdm(1), the X Display Manager. To do this, change the value of xdm_flags in /etc/rc.conf.local.
Some architectures permit keyboard type control. Use the
kbd(8) command to change the
kbd -l will list all available
kbd xxx will select the
xxx encoding. Store the encoding in
/etc/kbdtype to make sure it is set automatically at
Edit /etc/mail/aliases and set the three standard aliases to go to either a mailing list, or the system administrator.
# Well-known aliases -- these should be filled in! root: sysadm manager: root dumper: root
Run newaliases(8) after changes.
OpenBSD ships with a default /etc/mail/smtpd.conf file that will work for simple installations. See smtpd.conf(5) for information on configuring more complex setups. For the default installation, smptd is configured to only accept connections from the local host. This makes it possible to send mail locally, but not receive mail from remote servers, which is ideal if you have one central incoming mail machine and several clients. To cause smtpd to accept external network connections, modify the listen directive in /etc/mail/smtpd.conf to include the interfaces to listen on.
Review daily(8) to
understand what the periodic system maintenance scripts do and how to
customize them: For example, to enable
VERBOSESTATUS, or to add local
maintenance code to /etc/daily.local,
You might wish to tighten up security more by editing /etc/fbtab as when installing X. In /etc/inetd.conf comment out any extra entries you do not need, and only add things that are really needed.
Look at the other files in /etc and edit them as needed. (Do not edit files ending in .db — like pwd.db, spwd.db, nor localtime, nor rmt, nor any directories.)
Check what is running by typing
as root and see if anything unexpected is present. Do you need anything
else? Do you wish to change things? See
After the first night's security(8) run, change ownerships and permissions on files, directories, and devices; root may have received mail with subject: "<hostname> daily insecurity output". This mail contains a set of security recommendations, presented as a list looking something like this:
var/mail: permissions (0755, 0775) etc/daily: user (0, 3)
The best bet is to follow the advice in that list. The recommended setting is the first item in parentheses, while the current setting is the second one. This list is generated by mtree(8) using /etc/mtree/special. Use chmod(1), chgrp(1), and chown(8) as needed.
Enable/disable any daemon processes as necessary. intro(8) contains a comprehensive guide to the various daemons available on the OpenBSD system.
Install your own packages. The OpenBSD ports collection includes a large set of third-party software. A lot of it is available as binary packages that you can install using pkg_add(1). See ports(7) and packages(7) for more details. To start daemons installed from packages, see rc.d(8).
There is also other third-party software that is available in source form only, either because it has not been ported to OpenBSD yet, or because licensing restrictions make binary redistribution impossible. Sometimes checking the mailing lists for past problems that people have encountered will result in a fix posted.
Information on building and modifying kernels is contained within config(8).
This document first appeared in OpenBSD 2.2.
|April 29, 2014||OpenBSD-5.6|