[OpenBSD]

Manual Page Search Parameters

PTHREADS(3) Library Functions Manual PTHREADS(3)

NAME

pthreadsPOSIX 1003.1c thread interface

DESCRIPTION

A thread is a flow of control within a process. Each thread represents a minimal amount of state; normally just the CPU state and a signal mask. All other process state (such as memory, file descriptors) is shared among all of the threads in the process.
In OpenBSD, threads are implemented in a user-level library. A program using these routines must be linked with the -pthread option.
The SIGINFO signal can be sent to a threaded process to have the library show the state of all of its threads. The information is sent to the process' controlling tty and describes each thread's ID, state (see Thread states), current priority, flags (see Thread flags), signal mask, and name (as set by pthread_set_name_np(3)). If the environment variable PTHREAD_DEBUG is defined additional information is displayed.
For the purpose of this document, the functions available are grouped in the following categories. For further information, see the individual man page for each function.

Attribute Object Routines

The functions available are as follows:
pthread_attr_init()
Initialise a threads attribute object.
pthread_attr_destroy()
Destroy a threads attribute object.
pthread_attr_getdetachstate()
Get detachstate attribute.
pthread_attr_setdetachstate()
Set detachstate attribute.
pthread_attr_getstack()
Get stackaddr and stacksize attributes.
pthread_attr_setstack()
Set stackaddr and stacksize attributes.
pthread_attr_getstackaddr()
Get stackaddr attribute.
pthread_attr_setstackaddr()
Set stackaddr attribute.
pthread_attr_getstacksize()
Get stacksize attribute.
pthread_attr_setstacksize()
Set stacksize attribute.
pthread_attr_getguardsize()
Get guardsize attribute.
pthread_attr_setguardsize()
Set guardsize attribute.

Cleanup Routines

The functions available are as follows:
pthread_atfork()
Register fork handlers.
pthread_cleanup_pop()
Call the first cleanup routine.
pthread_cleanup_push()
Add a cleanup function for thread exit.

Condition Variable Routines

The functions available are as follows:
pthread_cond_broadcast()
Unblock all threads waiting for a condition variable.
pthread_cond_destroy()
Destroy a condition variable.
pthread_cond_init()
Create a condition variable.
pthread_cond_signal()
Unblock a thread waiting for a condition variable.
pthread_cond_timedwait()
Wait on a condition variable for a specific amount of time.
pthread_cond_wait()
Wait on a condition variable.

Mutex Routines

The functions available are as follows:
pthread_mutex_destroy()
Free resources allocated for a mutex.
pthread_mutex_init()
Create a mutex.
pthread_mutex_lock()
Lock a mutex.
pthread_mutex_trylock()
Attempt to lock a mutex without blocking.
pthread_mutex_unlock()
Unlock a mutex.
pthread_mutexattr_init()
Mutex attribute operations.
pthread_mutexattr_destroy()
Mutex attribute operations.
pthread_mutexattr_getprioceiling()
Mutex attribute operations.
pthread_mutexattr_setprioceiling()
Mutex attribute operations.
pthread_mutexattr_getprotocol()
Mutex attribute operations.
pthread_mutexattr_setprotocol()
Mutex attribute operations.
pthread_mutexattr_gettype()
Mutex attribute operations.
pthread_mutexattr_settype()
Mutex attribute operations.

Non Portable Extensions

The functions available are as follows:
pthread_main_np()
Identify the main thread.
pthread_set_name_np()
Set the name of a thread.
pthread_single_np()
Switch thread scheduling mode.
pthread_multi_np()
Switch thread scheduling mode.
pthread_stackseg_np()
Return stack size and location.
pthread_suspend_np()
Suspend given thread.
pthread_suspend_all_np()
Suspend all threads except current thread.
pthread_resume_np()
Resumes given thread.
pthread_resume_all_np()
Resumes all suspended threads.
pthread_yield()
Yield control of the current thread.

Per-Thread Context Routines

The functions available are as follows:
pthread_key_create()
Thread-specific data key creation.
pthread_key_delete()
Delete a thread-specific data key.
pthread_getspecific()
Get a thread-specific data value.
pthread_setspecific()
Set a thread-specific data value.

Read/Write Lock Routines

The functions available are as follows:
pthread_rwlock_destroy()
Destroy a read/write lock.
pthread_rwlock_init()
Initialise a read/write lock.
pthread_rwlock_rdlock()
Acquire a read/write lock for reading.
pthread_rwlock_unlock()
Release a read/write lock.
pthread_rwlock_wrlock()
Acquire a read/write lock for writing.
pthread_rwlockattr_destroy()
Destroy a read/write lock.
pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared()
Get the process shared attribute.
pthread_rwlockattr_init()
Initialise a read/write lock.
pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared()
Set the process shared attribute.

Thread Routines

The functions available are as follows:
pthread_create()
Create a new thread.
pthread_cancel()
Cancel execution of a thread.
pthread_detach()
Detach a thread.
pthread_equal()
Compare thread IDs.
pthread_exit()
Terminate the calling thread.
pthread_getconcurrency()
Get level of concurrency.
pthread_setconcurrency()
Set level of concurrency.
pthread_join()
Wait for thread termination.
pthread_kill()
Send a signal to a specific thread.
pthread_once()
Dynamic package initialisation.
pthread_self()
Get the calling thread's ID.
pthread_setcancelstate()
Set cancelability state.
pthread_setcanceltype()
Set cancelability state.
pthread_testcancel()
Set cancelability state.
pthread_sigmask()
Examine/change a thread's signal mask.

Thread states

Threads can be in one of these states:
cond_wait
Executing pthread_cond_wait(3) or pthread_cond_timedwait(3).
dead
Waiting for resource deallocation by the thread garbage collector.
deadlock
Waiting for a resource held by the thread itself.
fdlr_wait
File descriptor read lock wait.
fdlw_wait
File descriptor write lock wait.
fdr_wait
Executing one of accept(2), read(2), readv(2), recvfrom(2), recvmsg(2).
fdw_wait
Executing one of connect(2), sendmsg(2), sendto(2), write(2), writev(2).
file_wait
Executing flockfile(3) or similar.
join
Executing pthread_join(3).
mutex_wait
Executing pthread_mutex_lock(3).
poll_wait
Executing poll(2).
running
Scheduled for, or engaged in, program execution.
select_wait
Executing select(2).
sigsuspend
Executing sigsuspend(2).
sigwait
Executing sigwait(3).
sleep_wait
Executing sleep(3) or nanosleep(2).
spinblock
Waiting for a machine-level atomic lock.
suspended
Suspended with pthread_suspend_np(3) or pthread_suspend_all_np(3).
wait_wait
Executing wait4(2) or similar.

Thread flags

The first three flags are one of:
p
Private, system thread (e.g., the garbage collector).
E, C, or c
Thread is exiting (E), has a cancellation pending (C) (see pthread_cancel(3)), or is at a cancellation point (c).
t
Thread is being traced.
The next 7 flags refer to thread attributes:
C
Thread is in the CONDQ.
R
Thread is in the WORKQ.
W
Thread is in the WAITQ.
P
Thread is in the PRIOQ.
d
Thread has been detached (see pthread_detach(3)).
i
Thread inherits scheduler properties.
f
Thread will save floating point context.

Scheduling algorithm

The scheduling algorithm used by the user-level thread library is roughly as follows:
  1. Threads each have a time slice credit which is debited by the actual time the thread spends in running. Freshly scheduled threads are given a time slice credit of 100000 usec.
  2. Give an incremental priority update to run-enabled threads that have not run since the last time that an incremental priority update was given to them.
  3. Choose the next run-enabled thread with the highest priority, that became inactive least recently, and has the largest remaining time slice.
When all threads are blocked, the process also blocks. When there are no threads remaining, the process terminates with an exit code of zero.

Thread stacks

Each thread has (or should have) a different stack, whether it be provided by a user attribute, or provided automatically by the system. If a thread overflows its stack, unpredictable results may occur. System-allocated stacks (including that of the initial thread) are typically allocated in such a way that a SIGSEGV signal is delivered to the process when a stack overflows.
Signals handlers are normally run on the stack of the currently executing thread. Hence, if you want to handle the SIGSEGV signal, you should make use of sigaltstack(2) or sigprocmask(2).

Thread safety

The following functions are not thread safe:
asctime(), basename(), catgets(), crypt(), ctime(), dbm_clearerr(), dbm_close(), dbm_delete(), dbm_error(), dbm_fetch(), dbm_firstkey(), dbm_nextkey(), dbm_open(), dbm_store(), dirname(), dlerror(), drand48(), ecvt(), encrypt(), endgrent(), endpwent(), fcvt(), ftw(), gcvt(), getc_unlocked(), getchar_unlocked(), getenv(), getgrent(), getgrgid(), getgrnam(), gethostbyaddr(), gethostbyname(), gethostent(), getlogin(), getnetbyaddr(), getnetbyname(), getnetent(), getopt(), getprotobyname(), getprotobynumber(), getprotoent(), getpwent(), getpwnam(), getpwuid(), getservbyname(), getservbyport(), getservent(), gmtime(), hcreate(), hdestroy(), hsearch(), inet_ntoa(), l64a(), lgamma(), lgammaf(), localeconv(), localtime(), lrand48(), mrand48(), nftw(), nl_langinfo(), putc_unlocked(), putchar_unlocked(), putenv(), rand(), readdir(), setenv(), setgrent(), setkey(), setpwent(), strerror(), strtok(), ttyname(), unsetenv(),
The ctermid() and tmpnam() functions are not thread safe when passed a NULL argument.

ENVIRONMENT

 
 
PTHREAD_DEBUG
Enables verbose SIGINFO signal output.
 
 
LIBPTHREAD_DEBUG
Display thread status every time the garbage collection thread runs, approximately once every 10 seconds. The status display verbosity is controlled by the PTHREAD_DEBUG environment variable.

SEE ALSO

pthread_atfork(3), pthread_attr_init(3), pthread_attr_setdetachstate(3), pthread_attr_setguardsize(3), pthread_attr_setstack(3), pthread_attr_setstackaddr(3), pthread_attr_setstacksize(3), pthread_cancel(3), pthread_cleanup_pop(3), pthread_cleanup_push(3), pthread_cond_broadcast(3), pthread_cond_destroy(3), pthread_cond_init(3), pthread_cond_signal(3), pthread_cond_timedwait(3), pthread_cond_wait(3), pthread_create(3), pthread_detach(3), pthread_equal(3), pthread_exit(3), pthread_getspecific(3), pthread_join(3), pthread_key_create(3), pthread_key_delete(3), pthread_kill(3), pthread_main_np(3), pthread_mutex_destroy(3), pthread_mutex_init(3), pthread_mutex_lock(3), pthread_mutex_trylock(3), pthread_mutex_unlock(3), pthread_mutexattr(3), pthread_once(3), pthread_resume_all_np(3), pthread_resume_np(3), pthread_rwlock_destroy(3), pthread_rwlock_init(3), pthread_rwlock_rdlock(3), pthread_rwlock_unlock(3), pthread_rwlock_wrlock(3), pthread_rwlockattr_destroy(3), pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared(3), pthread_rwlockattr_init(3), pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared(3), pthread_schedparam(3), pthread_self(3), pthread_set_name_np(3), pthread_setspecific(3), pthread_sigmask(3), pthread_single_np(3), pthread_stackseg_np(3), pthread_suspend_all_np(3), pthread_suspend_np(3), pthread_testcancel(3), pthread_yield(3)

STANDARDS

The user-level thread library provides functions that conform to ISO/IEC 9945-1 ANSI/IEEE (“POSIX”) Std 1003.1 Second Edition 1996-07-12.

AUTHORS

John Birrell (jb@freebsd.org) wrote the majority of the user level thread library.

BUGS

The library contains a scheduler that uses the process virtual interval timer to pre-empt running threads. This means that using setitimer(2) to alter the process virtual timer will have undefined effects. The SIGVTALRM will never be delivered to threads in a process.
Some pthread functions fail to work correctly when linked using the -g option to cc(1) or gcc(1). The problems do not occur when linked using the -ggdb option.
December 18, 2008 OpenBSD-5.1