PRO/Wireless 3945ABG IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless network device
wpi* at pci?
driver provides support for Intel
PRO/Wireless 3945ABG Mini PCI Express network adapters.
These are the modes the wpi
driver can operate in:
- BSS mode
- Also known as infrastructure
mode, this is used when associating with an access point, through which
all traffic passes. This mode is the default.
- monitor mode
- In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without
associating with an access point. This disables the internal receive
filter and enables the card to capture packets from networks which it
wouldn't normally have access to, or to scan for access points.
driver can be configured to use Wired
Equivalent Privacy (WEP) or Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK). WPA
is the current encryption standard for wireless networks. It is strongly
recommended that WEP not be used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless
communication, due to serious weaknesses in it. The
driver offloads both encryption and
decryption of unicast data frames to the hardware for the CCMP cipher.
driver can be configured at runtime with
or on boot with
The driver needs at least version 3.1 of the following firmware file, which is
loaded when an interface is brought up:
This firmware file is not free because Intel refuses to grant distribution
rights without contractual obligations. As a result, even though
includes the driver, the firmware file cannot
be included and users have to download this file on their own.
A prepackaged version of the firmware can be installed using
The following example scans for available networks:
# ifconfig wpi0 scan
The following hostname.if(5)
example configures wpi0 to join network “mynwid”, using WPA key
“mywpakey”, obtaining an IP address using DHCP:
- wpi0: device timeout
- A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmission did
not complete in time. The driver will reset the hardware. This should not
- wpi0: fatal firmware error
- For some reason, the firmware crashed. The driver will
reset the hardware. This should not happen.
- wpi0: Radio transmitter is off
- The radio transmitter is off and thus no packet can go
out. The driver will reset the hardware. Make sure the laptop radio switch
- wpi0: error N, could not read firmware
- For some reason, the driver was unable to read the
firmware image from the filesystem. The file might be missing or
- wpi0: firmware file too short: N
- The firmware image is corrupted and can't be loaded into
- wpi0: could not load firmware
- An attempt to load the firmware into the adapter failed.
The driver will reset the hardware.
driver first appeared in
driver was written by