Intel PRO/Wireless 3945ABG IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless
wpi* at pci?
driver provides support for Intel
PRO/Wireless 3945ABG Mini PCI Express network adapters.
These are the modes the
driver can operate in:
- BSS mode
- Also known as infrastructure mode, this is
used when associating with an access point, through which all traffic
passes. This mode is the default.
- monitor mode
- In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without associating
with an access point. This disables the internal receive filter and
enables the card to capture packets from networks which it wouldn't
normally have access to, or to scan for access points.
wpi driver can be
configured to use Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) or Wi-Fi Protected Access
(WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK). WPA is the current encryption standard for wireless
networks. It is strongly recommended that WEP not be used as the sole
mechanism to secure wireless communication, due to serious weaknesses in it.
wpi driver offloads both encryption
and decryption of unicast data frames to the hardware for the CCMP
wpi driver can be
configured at runtime with
ifconfig(8) or on boot with
The driver needs at least version 3.1 of the following firmware file, which is
loaded when an interface is brought up:
This firmware file is not free because Intel refuses to grant
distribution rights without contractual obligations. As a result, even
though OpenBSD includes the driver, the firmware
file cannot be included and users have to download this file on their
A prepackaged version of the firmware can be installed using
The following example scans for available networks:
# ifconfig wpi0 scan
configures wpi0 to join network “mynwid”, using WPA key
“mywpakey”, obtaining an IP address using DHCP:
nwid mynwid wpakey mywpakey
- wpi0: device timeout
- A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmission did not complete in
time. The driver will reset the hardware. This should not happen.
- wpi0: fatal firmware error
- For some reason, the firmware crashed. The driver will reset the hardware.
This should not happen.
- wpi0: Radio transmitter is off
- The radio transmitter is off and thus no packet can go out. The driver
will reset the hardware. Make sure the laptop radio switch is on.
- wpi0: error N, could not read firmware ...
- For some reason, the driver was unable to read the firmware image from the
filesystem. The file might be missing or corrupted.
- wpi0: firmware file too short: N bytes
- The firmware image is corrupted and can't be loaded into the adapter.
- wpi0: could not load firmware
- An attempt to load the firmware into the adapter failed. The driver will
reset the hardware.
driver first appeared in
driver was written by