Intel PRO/Wireless 3945ABG IEEE 802.11a/b/g wireless network
driver provides support for Intel PRO/Wireless
3945ABG Mini PCI Express network adapters.
These are the modes the
wpi driver can
- BSS mode
- Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when
associating with an access point, through which all traffic passes. This
mode is the default.
- monitor mode
- In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without associating
with an access point. This disables the internal receive filter and
enables the card to capture packets from networks which it wouldn't
normally have access to, or to scan for access points.
wpi driver can be configured to use
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) or Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA-PSK and
WPA2-PSK). WPA is the current encryption standard for wireless networks. It
is strongly recommended that WEP not be used as the sole mechanism to secure
wireless communication, due to serious weaknesses in it. The
wpi driver offloads both encryption and decryption
of unicast data frames to the hardware for the CCMP cipher.
In BSS mode, the driver supports powersave mode, which can be
enabled via ifconfig(8).
The driver needs at least version 3.1 of the following firmware file, which is
loaded when an interface is brought up:
wpi driver can be configured at
runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot
This firmware file is not free because Intel refuses to grant
distribution rights without contractual obligations. As a result, even
though OpenBSD includes the driver, the firmware
file cannot be included and users have to download this file on their
A prepackaged version of the firmware can be installed using
The following example scans for available networks:
# ifconfig wpi0 scan
hostname.if(5) example configures
wpi0 to join network “mynwid”, using WPA key
“mywpakey”, obtaining an IP address using DHCP:
nwid mynwid wpakey mywpakey
- wpi0: device timeout
- A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmission did not complete in
time. The driver will reset the hardware. This should not happen.
- wpi0: fatal firmware error
- For some reason, the firmware crashed. The driver will reset the hardware.
This should not happen.
- wpi0: Radio transmitter is off
- The radio transmitter is off and thus no packet can go out. The driver
will reset the hardware. Make sure the laptop radio switch is on.
- wpi0: error N, could not read firmware ...
- For some reason, the driver was unable to read the firmware image from the
filesystem. The file might be missing or corrupted.
- wpi0: firmware file too short: N bytes
- The firmware image is corrupted and can't be loaded into the adapter.
- wpi0: could not load firmware
- An attempt to load the firmware into the adapter failed. The driver will
reset the hardware.
wpi driver first appeared in