|PATCH(1)||General Commands Manual||PATCH(1)|
patchwill take a patch file containing any of the four forms of difference listing produced by the diff(1) program and apply those differences to an original file, producing a patched version. If patchfile is omitted, or is a hyphen, the patch will be read from the standard input.
patchwill attempt to determine the type of the diff listing, unless overruled by a
-uoption. If the patchfile contains more than one patch,
patchwill try to apply each of them as if they came from separate patch files. This means, among other things, that it is assumed that the name of the file to patch must be determined for each diff listing, and that the garbage before each diff listing will be examined for interesting things such as file names and revision level (see the section on Filename Determination below). The options are as follows:
-zwill be ignored.
existing”. This option is currently the default, unless
patchto interpret the patch file as a context diff.
patchto use the “#ifdef...#endif” construct to mark changes. The argument following will be used as the differentiating symbol. Note that, unlike the C compiler, there must be a space between the
-Dand the argument.
patchto interpret the next argument as a directory, and change working directory to it before doing anything else.
patchto remove output files that are empty after the patches have been applied. This option is useful when applying patches that create or remove files.
patchto interpret the patch file as an ed(1) script.
patchto ignore up to that many lines in looking for places to install a hunk. Note that a larger fuzz factor increases the odds of a faulty patch. The default fuzz factor is 2, and it may not be set to more than the number of lines of context in the context diff, ordinarily 3.
patchto assume that the user knows exactly what he or she is doing, and to not ask any questions. It assumes the following: skip patches for which a file to patch can't be found; patch files even though they have the wrong version for the “Prereq:” line in the patch; and assume that patches are not reversed even if they look like they are. This option does not suppress commentary; use
patchto ignore patches that it thinks are reversed or already applied. See also
patchto interpret the patch file as a normal diff.
-p0 gives the entire pathname unmodified.
-pat all just gives you blurfl.c, unless all of the directories in the leading path (u/howard/src/blurfl) exist and that path is relative, in which case you get the entire pathname unmodified. Whatever you end up with is looked for either in the current directory, or the directory specified by the
patchthat this patch was created with the old and new files swapped. (Yes, I'm afraid that does happen occasionally, human nature being what it is.)
patchwill attempt to swap each hunk around before applying it. Rejects will come out in the swapped format. The
-Roption will not work with ed diff scripts because there is too little information to reconstruct the reverse operation. If the first hunk of a patch fails,
patchwill reverse the hunk to see if it can be applied that way. If it can, you will be asked if you want to have the
-Roption set. If it can't, the patch will continue to be applied normally. (Note: this method cannot detect a reversed patch if it is a normal diff and if the first command is an append (i.e. it should have been a delete) since appends always succeed, due to the fact that a null context will match anywhere. Luckily, most patches add or change lines rather than delete them, so most reversed normal diffs will begin with a delete, which will fail, triggering the heuristic.)
patchdo its work silently, unless an error occurs.
-f, in that it suppresses questions, but makes some different assumptions: skip patches for which a file to patch can't be found (the same as
-f); skip patches for which the file has the wrong version for the “Prereq:” line in the patch; and assume that patches are reversed if they look like they are.
patchto interpret the patch file as a unified context diff (a unidiff).
VERSION_CONTROLenvironment variables, which are overridden by this option. The
-Boption overrides this option, causing the prefix to always be used for making backup file names. The values of the
VERSION_CONTROLenvironment variables and the argument to the
-Voption are like the GNU Emacs “version-control” variable; they also recognize synonyms that are more descriptive. The valid values are (unique abbreviations are accepted):
patchto print out its revision header and patch level.
-boption is specified.
patchwill try to skip any leading garbage, apply the diff, and then skip any trailing garbage. Thus you could feed an article or message containing a diff listing to
patch, and it should work. If the entire diff is indented by a consistent amount, this will be taken into account. With context diffs, and to a lesser extent with normal diffs,
patchcan detect when the line numbers mentioned in the patch are incorrect, and will attempt to find the correct place to apply each hunk of the patch. As a first guess, it takes the line number mentioned for the hunk, plus or minus any offset used in applying the previous hunk. If that is not the correct place,
patchwill scan both forwards and backwards for a set of lines matching the context given in the hunk. First
patchlooks for a place where all lines of the context match. If no such place is found, and it's a context diff, and the maximum fuzz factor is set to 1 or more, then another scan takes place ignoring the first and last line of context. If that fails, and the maximum fuzz factor is set to 2 or more, the first two and last two lines of context are ignored, and another scan is made. (The default maximum fuzz factor is 2.) If
patchcannot find a place to install that hunk of the patch, it will put the hunk out to a reject file, which normally is the name of the output file plus “.rej”. (Note that the rejected hunk will come out in context diff form whether the input patch was a context diff or a normal diff. If the input was a normal diff, many of the contexts will simply be null.) The line numbers on the hunks in the reject file may be different than in the patch file: they reflect the approximate location patch thinks the failed hunks belong in the new file rather than the old one. As each hunk is completed, you will be told whether the hunk succeeded or failed, and which line (in the new file)
patchthought the hunk should go on. If this is different from the line number specified in the diff, you will be told the offset. A single large offset MAY be an indication that a hunk was installed in the wrong place. You will also be told if a fuzz factor was used to make the match, in which case you should also be slightly suspicious.
patchwill try to figure out from the leading garbage what the name of the file to edit is. When checking a prospective file name, pathname components are stripped as specified by the
-poption and the file's existence and writability are checked relative to the current working directory (or the directory specified by the
-doption). If the diff is a context or unified diff,
patchis able to determine the old and new file names from the diff header. For context diffs, the “old” file is specified in the line beginning with “***” and the “new” file is specified in the line beginning with “---”. For a unified diff, the “old” file is specified in the line beginning with “---” and the “new” file is specified in the line beginning with “+++”. If there is an “Index:” line in the leading garbage (regardless of the diff type),
patchwill use the file name from that line as the “index” file.
patchwill choose the file name by performing the following steps, with the first match used:
patchis operating in strict IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (“POSIX.1”) mode, the first of the “old”, “new” and “index” file names that exist is used. Otherwise,
patchwill examine either the “old” and “new” file names or, for a non-context diff, the “index” file name, and choose the file name with the fewest path components, the shortest basename, and the shortest total file name length (in that order).
patchwill prompt the user for the file name to use.
patchwill take the first word from the prerequisites line (normally a version number) and check the input file to see if that word can be found. If not,
patchwill ask for confirmation before proceeding. The upshot of all this is that you should be able to say, while in a news interface, the following:
| patch -d /usr/src/local/blurfl
-zoptions. The extension used for making backup files may also be specified in the
SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIXenvironment variable, which is overridden by the options above. If the backup file is a symbolic or hard link to the original file,
patchcreates a new backup file name by changing the first lowercase letter in the last component of the file's name into uppercase. If there are no more lowercase letters in the name, it removes the first character from the name. It repeats this process until it comes up with a backup file that does not already exist or is not linked to the original file. You may also specify where you want the output to go with the
-ooption; if that file already exists, it is backed up first. patchlevel.h file which is patched to increment the patch level as the first diff in the patch file you send out. If you put a “Prereq:” line in with the patch, it won't let them apply patches out of order without some warning. Second, make sure you've specified the file names right, either in a context diff header, or with an “Index:” line. If you are patching something in a subdirectory, be sure to tell the patch user to specify a
-poption as needed. Third, you can create a file by sending out a diff that compares a null file to the file you want to create. This will only work if the file you want to create doesn't exist already in the target directory. Fourth, take care not to send out reversed patches, since it makes people wonder whether they already applied the patch. Fifth, while you may be able to get away with putting 582 diff listings into one file, it is probably wiser to group related patches into separate files in case something goes haywire.
patchbehaves as if the
-posixoption has been specified.
patchprompts the user
patchutility exits with one of the following values:
patchcouldn't parse your patch file. The message “Hmm...” indicates that there is unprocessed text in the patch file and that
patchis attempting to intuit whether there is a patch in that text and, if so, what kind of patch it is. diff(1)
patchutility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (“POSIX.1”) specification, except as detailed above for the
--posixoption. The flags [
patchcannot tell if the line numbers are off in an ed script, and can only detect bad line numbers in a normal diff when it finds a “change” or a “delete” command. A context diff using fuzz factor 3 may have the same problem. Until a suitable interactive interface is added, you should probably do a context diff in these cases to see if the changes made sense. Of course, compiling without errors is a pretty good indication that the patch worked, but not always.
patchusually produces the correct results, even when it has to do a lot of guessing. However, the results are guaranteed to be correct only when the patch is applied to exactly the same version of the file that the patch was generated from.
-C) will fail if you try to check several patches in succession that build on each other. The entire
patchcode would have to be restructured to keep temporary files around so that it can handle this situation. If code has been duplicated (for instance with #ifdef OLDCODE ... #else ... #endif),
patchis incapable of patching both versions and, if it works at all, will likely patch the wrong one, and tell you that it succeeded to boot. If you apply a patch you've already applied,
patchwill think it is a reversed patch, and offer to un-apply the patch. This could be construed as a feature.
|April 11, 2018||OpenBSD-current|