|NC(1)||General Commands Manual||NC(1)|
nc — arbitrary TCP
and UDP connections and listens
utility is used for just about anything under the sun involving TCP, UDP, or
UNIX-domain sockets. It can open TCP connections,
send UDP packets, listen on arbitrary TCP and UDP ports, do port scanning,
and deal with both IPv4 and IPv6. Unlike
scripts nicely, and separates error messages onto standard error instead of
sending them to standard output, as
telnet(1) does with some.
Common uses include:
The options are as follows:
-c. If not specified, destination is used.
ncperform connection setup with a proxy but then leave the rest of the connection to another program (e.g. ssh(1) using the ssh_config(5)
ProxyUseFdpassoption). Cannot be used with
-cand cannot be used with
nchelp text and exit.
-l. When used together with the
-uoption, the server socket is not connected and it can receive UDP datagrams from multiple hosts.
-psxz. Additionally, any timeouts specified with the
-woption are ignored.
ncshould use, subject to privilege restrictions and availability. Cannot be used together with
For TLS options, keyword may be one of:
noverify, which disables certificate
noname, which disables certificate
clientcert, which requires a
client certificate on incoming connections; or
muststaple, which requires the peer to provide a
valid stapled OCSP response with the handshake. The following TLS
options specify a value in the form of a
ciphers, which allows the supported TLS ciphers
to be specified (see
for further details);
protocols, which allows
the supported TLS protocols to be specified (see
for further details). Specifying TLS options requires
For the IPv4 TOS/IPv6 traffic class value,
keyword may be one of
or one of the DiffServ Code Points:
cs7; or a number in
either hex or decimal.
ncto script telnet sessions.
-x. For UNIX-domain sockets, use a datagram socket instead of a stream socket. If a UNIX-domain socket is used, a temporary receiving socket is created in /tmp unless the
-sflag is given.
-wflag has no effect on the
ncwill listen forever for a connection, with or without the
-wflag. The default is no timeout.
5(SOCKS v.5) and
connect(HTTPS proxy). If the protocol is not specified, SOCKS version 5 is used.
destination can be a numerical IP address or
a symbolic hostname (unless the
-n option is given).
In general, a destination must be specified, unless the
-l option is given (in which case the local host is
used). For UNIX-domain sockets, a destination is
required and is the socket path to connect to (or listen on if the
-l option is given).
port can be specified as a numeric port
number or as a service name. Port ranges may be specified as numeric port
numbers of the form nn-mm. In
general, a destination port must be specified, unless the
-U option is given.
It is quite simple to build a very basic client/server model using
nc. On one console, start
listening on a specific port for a connection. For example:
$ nc -l 1234
nc is now listening on port 1234 for a
connection. On a second console (or a second machine), connect to the
machine and port being listened on:
$ nc -N 127.0.0.1 1234
There should now be a connection between the ports. Anything typed
at the second console will be concatenated to the first, and vice-versa.
After the connection has been set up,
nc does not
really care which side is being used as a ‘server’ and which
side is being used as a ‘client’. The connection may be
terminated using an
EOF (‘^D’), as the
-N flag was given.
The example in the previous section can be expanded to build a basic data transfer model. Any information input into one end of the connection will be output to the other end, and input and output can be easily captured in order to emulate file transfer.
Start by using
nc to listen on a specific
port, with output captured into a file:
$ nc -l 1234 > filename.out
Using a second machine, connect to the listening
nc process, feeding it the file which is to be
$ nc -N host.example.com 1234 < filename.in
After the file has been transferred, the connection will close automatically.
It is sometimes useful to talk to servers “by hand” rather than through a user interface. It can aid in troubleshooting, when it might be necessary to verify what data a server is sending in response to commands issued by the client. For example, to retrieve the home page of a web site:
$ printf "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\n\r\n" | nc host.example.com 80
Note that this also displays the headers sent by the web server. They can be filtered, using a tool such as sed(1), if necessary.
More complicated examples can be built up when the user knows the format of requests required by the server. As another example, an email may be submitted to an SMTP server using:
$ nc localhost 25 << EOF HELO host.example.com MAIL FROM:<email@example.com> RCPT TO:<firstname.lastname@example.org> DATA Body of email. . QUIT EOF
It may be useful to know which ports are open and running services
on a target machine. The
-z flag can be used to tell
nc to report open ports, rather than initiate a
connection. For example:
$ nc -z host.example.com 20-30 Connection to host.example.com 22 port [tcp/ssh] succeeded! Connection to host.example.com 25 port [tcp/smtp] succeeded!
The port range was specified to limit the search to ports 20 - 30.
Alternatively, it might be useful to know which server software is
running, and which versions. This information is often contained within the
greeting banners. In order to retrieve these, it is necessary to first make
a connection, and then break the connection when the banner has been
retrieved. This can be accomplished by specifying a small timeout with the
-w flag, or perhaps by issuing a
QUIT" command to the server:
$ echo "QUIT" | nc host.example.com 20-30 SSH-1.99-OpenSSH_3.6.1p2 Protocol mismatch. 220 host.example.com IMS SMTP Receiver Version 0.84 Ready
Open a TCP connection to port 42 of host.example.com, using port 31337 as the source port, with a timeout of 5 seconds:
$ nc -p 31337 -w 5 host.example.com 42
Open a TCP connection to port 443 of www.example.com, and negotiate TLS with any supported TLS protocol version and "compat" ciphers:
$ nc -cv -T protocols=all -T ciphers=compat www.example.com 443
Open a TCP connection to port 443 of www.google.ca, and negotiate TLS. Check for a different name in the certificate for validation:
$ nc -cv -e adsf.au.doubleclick.net www.google.ca 443
Open a UDP connection to port 53 of host.example.com:
$ nc -u host.example.com 53
Open a TCP connection to port 42 of host.example.com using 10.1.2.3 as the IP for the local end of the connection:
$ nc -s 10.1.2.3 host.example.com 42
Create and listen on a UNIX-domain stream socket:
$ nc -lU /var/tmp/dsocket
$ nc -x10.2.3.4:8080 -Xconnect host.example.com 42
The same example again, this time enabling proxy authentication with username “ruser” if the proxy requires it:
$ nc -x10.2.3.4:8080 -Xconnect -Pruser host.example.com 42
UDP port scans using the
of flags will always report success irrespective of the target machine's
state. However, in conjunction with a traffic sniffer either on the target
machine or an intermediary device, the
combination could be useful for communications diagnostics. Note that the
amount of UDP traffic generated may be limited either due to hardware
resources and/or configuration settings.
|March 31, 2021||OpenBSD-current|