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MBRTOC16(3) Library Functions Manual MBRTOC16(3)

mbrtoc16convert one UTF-8 encoded character to UTF-16

#include <uchar.h>

mbrtoc16(char16_t * restrict pc16, const char * restrict s, size_t n, mbstate_t * restrict mbs);

The () function examines at most n bytes of the multibyte character byte string pointed to by s, converts those bytes to a wide character, and encodes the wide character using UTF-16. In some cases, it is necessary to call this function twice to convert a single character.

Conversion happens in accordance with the conversion state *mbs, which must be initialized to zero before the application's first call to (). For this function, *mbs stores information about both the state of the UTF-8 input encoding and the state of the UTF-16 output encoding. If the previous call did not return (size_t)-1, mbs can safely be reused without reinitialization.

The input encoding that () uses for s is determined by the LC_CTYPE category of the current locale. If the locale is changed without reinitialization of *mbs, the behaviour is undefined.

Unlike mbtowc(3), () accepts an incomplete byte sequence pointed to by s which does not form a complete character but is potentially part of a valid character. In this case, the function consumes all such bytes. The conversion state saved in *mbs will be used to restart the suspended conversion during the next call.

On systems other than OpenBSD that support state-dependent encodings, s may point to a special sequence of bytes called a “shift sequence”; see mbrtowc(3) for details.

The following arguments cause special processing:

pc16 == NULL
The conversion from a multibyte character to a wide character is performed and the conversion state may be affected, but the resulting wide character is discarded.
s == NULL
The arguments pc16 and n are ignored and starting or continuing the conversion with an empty string is attempted, discarding the conversion result.
mbs == NULL
An internal mbstate_t object specific to the () function is used instead of the mbs argument. This internal object is automatically initialized at program startup and never changed by any function except mbrtoc16().

If () is called with a NULL mbs argument and that call returns (size_t)-1, the internal conversion state of mbrtoc16() becomes permanently undefined and there is no way to reset it to any defined state. Consequently, after such a mishap, it is not safe to call mbrtoc16() with a NULL mbs argument ever again until the program is terminated.

The bytes pointed to by s form a terminating NUL character. If pc16 is not NULL, a NUL wide character has been stored in *pc16.
s points to a valid character, and the value returned is the number of bytes completing the character. If pc16 is not NULL, the first UTF-16 code unit of the corresponding wide character has been stored in *pc16. If it is an UTF-16 high surrogate, the function needs to be called again to retrieve a second UTF-16 code unit, the low surrogate. On OpenBSD, this happens if and only if the return value is 4, but this equivalence does not hold on other operating systems that support input encodings other than UTF-8.
s points to an illegal byte sequence which does not form a valid multibyte character in the current locale, or mbs points to an invalid or uninitialized object. errno is set to EILSEQ or EINVAL, respectively. The conversion state object pointed to by mbs is left in an undefined state and must be reinitialized before being used again.
s points to an incomplete byte sequence of length n which has been consumed and contains part of a valid multibyte character. The character may be completed by calling the same function again with s pointing to one or more subsequent bytes of the multibyte character and mbs pointing to the conversion state object used during conversion of the incomplete byte sequence.
The second 16-bit code unit resulting from a previous call has been stored into *pc16, without consuming any additional bytes from s.

mbrtoc16() causes an error in the following cases:

s points to an invalid multibyte character.
mbs points to an invalid or uninitialized mbstate_t object.

c16rtomb(3), mbrtowc(3), setlocale(3)

mbrtoc16() conforms to ISO/IEC 9899:2011 (“ISO C11”).

mbrtoc16() has been available since OpenBSD 7.4.

On operating systems other than OpenBSD that support input encodings other than UTF-8, inspecting the return value is insufficient to tell whether the function needs to be called again. If the return value is positive, inspecting *pc16 is also required to make that decision. Consequently, passing a NULL pointer for the pc16 argument is discouraged because it can result in a well-defined but unknown output encoding state. The simplest way to recover from such an unknown state is to reinitialize the object pointed to by mbs.

The C11 standard only requires the pc16 argument to be encoded according to UTF-16 if the predefined environment macro __STDC_UTF_16__ is defined with a value of 1. On OpenBSD, <uchar.h> provides this definition. Other operating systems which do not define __STDC_UTF_16__ could theoretically use a different, implementation-defined output encoding for pc16 instead of UTF-16. Writing portable code for an arbitrary output encoding is impossible because the rules when and how often the function needs to be called again depend on the output encoding; the rules explained above are specific to UTF-16. Using UTF-16 as the output encoding of wcrtoc16() becomes mandatory in C23.

August 20, 2023 OpenBSD-current