last logins of users, ttys, and hosts
utility will either list the sessions of
, in reverse time order, or list the
users logged in at a specified snapshot date and time in reverse time order.
Each line of output contains the user name, the tty from which the session was
conducted, any hostname, the start and stop times for the session, and the
duration of the session. If the session is still continuing or was cut short
by a crash or shutdown, last
will so indicate.
The options are as follows:
- Calculates the total time displayed and prints it after the
- Specify the snapshot date and time. All users logged in at
the snapshot date and time will be reported. This may be used with the
-f option to derive the results from stored
wtmp files. When this argument is provided, all other options except for
-f and -n are
ignored. The argument should be in the form
“[[[CC]YY]MMDD]hhmm[.SS]” where each pair of letters
represents the following:
All but the “hh” and “mm” letter pairs are
optional. If the “CC” and “YY” letter pairs
are not specified, the values default to the current year. If the
“MM” and “DD” letter pairs are not specified,
the values default to the current month and day. If the “SS”
letter pair is not specified, the value defaults to 0.
- The first two digits of the year (the century).
- The second two digits of the year. If
“YY” is specified, but “CC” is not, a
value for “YY” between 69 and 99 results in a
“CC” value of 19. Otherwise, a “CC” value
of 20 is used.
- Month of the year, from 1 to 12.
- Day of the month, from 1 to 31.
- Hour of the day, from 0 to 23.
- Minute of the hour, from 0 to 59.
- Second of the minute, from 0 to 61.
- last reads the file
file instead of the default,
- host names may be names or
- Limits the report to
number lines. The format
also supported, but is deprecated.
- Display time values in seconds since the Epoch, instead of
- Display better time information, including seconds.
- Specify the tty. tty names
may be given fully or abbreviated, for example,
last -t 03 is equivalent to
last -t tty03.
If multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is not specified, the
information which applies to any of the arguments is printed, e.g.,
last root -t console
would list all of
's sessions as well as all sessions on the console
terminal. If no users, hostnames, or terminals are specified,
prints a record of all logins and logouts.
The pseudo-user “reboot” logs in at reboots of the system; thus
will give an indication of mean time
is interrupted, it indicates to what date
the search has progressed. If interrupted with a quit signal,
indicates how far the search has progressed
and then continues.
- login database
utility first appeared in
The original version was written by Howard P.
; Keith Bostic
rewrote it in
1986/87 to add functionality and to improve code quality.