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FUTEX(2) System Calls Manual FUTEX(2)

futexfast userspace locking primitive

#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/futex.h>

futex(volatile uint32_t *uaddr, int op, int val, const struct timespec *timeout, volatile uint32_t *uaddr2);

The () syscall provides sleep and wakeup primitives related to a particular address.

Three op operations are currently supported:

If val is equal to *uaddr, the calling thread is blocked on the “wait channel” identified by uaddr until timeout expires or until another thread issues a FUTEX_WAKE or FUTEX_REQUEUE operation with the same uaddr address. uaddr2 is ignored.
Unblocks val threads sleeping on the wait channel identified by uaddr. timeout and uaddr2 are ignored.
Similar to FUTEX_WAKE but also requeue remaining threads from the wait channel uaddr to uaddr2. In this case, pass uint32_t val2 as the fourth argument instead of timeout. At most that number of threads is requeued.

For FUTEX_WAKE and FUTEX_REQUEUE, futex() returns the number of woken threads.

For FUTEX_WAIT, futex() returns zero if woken by a matching FUTEX_WAKE or FUTEX_REQUEUE call. Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.

futex() will fail if:

The op argument is invalid.
The userspace address uaddr is invalid.
The value pointed to by uaddr is not the same as the expected value val.
The timeout specified a second value less than zero, or a nanosecond value less than zero or greater than or equal to 1000 million.
The timeout expired before the thread was woken up.
A signal arrived.
A signal arrived and SA_RESTART was set.

sigaction(2), pthread_cond_wait(3), pthread_mutex_lock(3), tsleep(9)

Ulrich Drepper, Futexes Are Tricky,, November 5, 2011.

The futex() syscall first appeared in Linux 2.5.7 and was added to OpenBSD 6.2.

November 9, 2023 OpenBSD-current