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BUS_DMAMAP_CREATE(9) Kernel Developer's Manual BUS_DMAMAP_CREATE(9)

bus_dmamap_create, bus_dmamap_destroy, bus_dmamap_load, bus_dmamap_load_mbuf, bus_dmamap_load_uio, bus_dmamap_load_raw, bus_dmamap_unload, bus_dmamap_sync, bus_dmamem_alloc, bus_dmamem_alloc_range, bus_dmamem_free, bus_dmamem_map, bus_dmamem_unmap, bus_dmamem_mmap
bus and machine independent DMA mapping interface

#include <machine/bus.h>

The bus_dmamap_create interface provides a bus and machine independent mechanism for managing DMA data transfers to and from devices.
The basic abstraction is bus_dmamap_t, a pointer to a structure describing an individual DMA mapping. The structure contains an array of segments (dm_segs), and a count of segments (dm_nsegs).
Each segment in dm_segs describes a single physical area of memory suitable for DMA, with a starting address (ds_addr) and a length (ds_len). These are the values that must be communicated to the DMA device. Taken together the segments exactly and completely describe the buffer being used to transfer data.
bus_dma_tag_t is an opaque type. bus_dma_tag_t values are received from higher software layers and are never created, changed, deleted or even examined in this interface.
The basic cycle to transfer data to/from a DMA device is:
bus_dmamap_create();         /* get a dmamap to load/unload          */ 
 
for each DMA xfer { 
        bus_dmamem_alloc();  /* allocate some DMA'able memory        */ 
        bus_dmamem_map();    /* map it into the kernel address space */ 
 
        /* 
         * Fill the allocated DMA'able memory with whatever data 
         * is to be sent out, using the pointer obtained with 
         * bus_dmamem_map(). 
         */ 
 
        bus_dmamap_load();   /* initialize the segments of dmamap    */ 
        bus_dmamap_sync();   /* synchronize/flush any DMA cache      */ 
 
        for (i = 0; i < dm_nsegs; i++) { 
                /* 
                 * Tell the DMA device the physical address 
                 * (dmamap->dm_segs[i].ds_addr) and the length 
                 * (dmamap->dm_segs[i].ds_len) of the memory to xfer. 
                 * 
                 * Start the DMA, wait until it's done 
                 */ 
        } 
 
        bus_dmamap_sync();   /* synchronize/flush any DMA cache      */ 
        bus_dmamap_unload(); /* prepare dmamap for reuse             */ 
 
        /* 
         * Copy any data desired from the DMA'able memory using the 
         * pointer created by bus_dmamem_map(). 
         */ 
 
        bus_dmamem_unmap();  /* free kernel virtual address space    */ 
        bus_dmamem_free();   /* free DMA'able memory                 */ 
} 
 
bus_dmamap_destroy();        /* release any resources used by dmamap */

Individual implementations may name these structures whatever they wish, providing that the external representations are:
 
 
bus_addr_t
A device bus address to be used for CPU access or DMA.
 
 
bus_size_t
The size of a bus address range.
 
 
bus_dma_tag_t
A machine-dependent opaque type describing the implementation of DMA for a given host/bus. Machine-dependent code is responsible for passing these structures to a bus's autoconfiguration machinery, which in turn passes it down to the device drivers.
 
 
bus_dma_segment_t
A structure describing an individual DMA segment. The structure may have machine-dependent members and arbitrary layout, but has at least the following members:
	bus_addr_t	ds_addr; 
	bus_size_t	ds_len;
    
The values in ds_addr and ds_len are suitable for programming into a DMA controller's address and length registers.
 
 
bus_dmamap_t
A pointer to a structure describing an individual DMA mapping. The structure may have machine-dependent members and arbitrary layout, but has at least the following members:
	int		   dm_nsegs; 
	bus_dma_segment_t *dm_segs;
    
The dm_segs member may be an array of segments or a pointer to an array of segments. The dm_nsegs member indicates the number of segments in dm_segs.

int
bus_dmamap_create(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_size_t size, int nsegments, bus_size_t maxsegsz, bus_size_t boundary, int flags, bus_dmamap_t *dmamp);
void
bus_dmamap_destroy(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_dmamap_t dmam);
The bus_dmamap_create() function allocates a DMA handle and initializes it according to the parameters provided. This function returns 0 on success, an error code otherwise.
The bus_dmamap_create() arguments are as follows:
tag
The bus_dma_tag_t passed down from the parent driver via <bus>_attach_args.
size
The maximum DMA transfer that can be mapped by the handle.
nsegments
Number of segments the device can support in a single DMA transaction. This may be the number of scatter-gather descriptors supported by the device.
maxsegsz
The maximum number of bytes that may be transferred by any given DMA segment.
boundary
Some DMA controllers are not able to transfer data that crosses a particular boundary. This argument allows this boundary to be specified. The boundary lines begin at 0, and occur every boundary bytes. Mappings may begin on a boundary line but may not end on or cross a boundary line. If no boundary condition needs to be observed, a boundary argument of 0 should be used.
flags
Flags are defined as follows:
It is safe to wait (sleep) for resources during this call.
It is not safe to wait (sleep) for resources during this call.
Perform any resource allocation this handle may need now. If this is not specified, the allocation may be deferred to bus_dmamap_load(). If this flag is specified, bus_dmamap_load() will not block on resource allocation.
These flags are placeholders, and may be used by buses to provide bus-dependent functionality.
dmamp
A bus_dmamap_t pointer. A DMA map will be allocated and pointed to by dmamp upon successful completion of this routine.
The bus_dmamap_destroy() function frees all resources associated with a given DMA handle. This function always succeeds if given valid arguments.
The bus_dmamap_destroy() arguments are as follows:
tag
The bus_dma_tag_t passed down from the parent driver via <bus>_attach_args.
dmam
The DMA handle to destroy.
In the event that the DMA handle contains a valid mapping, the mapping will be unloaded via the same mechanism used by bus_dmamap_unload().

int
bus_dmamap_load(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_dmamap_t dmam, void *buf, bus_size_t buflen, struct proc *p, int flags);
int
bus_dmamap_load_mbuf(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_dmamap_t dmam, struct mbuf *chain, int flags);
int
bus_dmamap_load_uio(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_dmamap_t dmam, struct uio *uio, int flags);
int
bus_dmamap_load_raw(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_dmamap_t dmam, bus_dma_segment_t *segs, int nsegs, bus_size_t size, int flags);
void
bus_dmamap_unload(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_dmamap_t dmam);
The bus_dmamap_load() function loads a DMA handle with mappings for a DMA transfer. It assumes that all pages involved in a DMA transfer are wired. This function returns 0 on success, an error code otherwise.
The bus_dmamap_load() arguments are as follows:
tag
The bus_dma_tag_t passed down from the parent driver via <bus>_attach_args.
dmam
The DMA handle with which to map the transfer.
buf
The buffer to be used for the DMA transfer.
buflen
The size of the buffer.
p
Used to indicate the address space in which the buffer is located. If NULL, the buffer is assumed to be in kernel space. Otherwise, the buffer is assumed to be in process p's address space.
flags
Flags are defined as follows:
It is safe to wait (sleep) for resources during this call.
It is not safe to wait (sleep) for resources during this call.
These flags are placeholders, and may be used by buses to provide bus-dependent functionality.
By default, the bus_dmamap_create API assumes that there is coherency between memory and the device performing the DMA transaction. Some platforms, however, have special hardware, such as an “I/O cache”, which may improve performance of some types of DMA transactions, but which break the assumption that there is coherency between memory and the device performing the DMA transaction. This flag allows the use of this special hardware, provided that the device is doing sequential, unidirectional transfers which conform to certain alignment and size constraints defined by the platform. If the platform does not support the feature, or if the buffer being loaded into the DMA map does not conform to the constraints required for use of the feature, then this flag will be silently ignored. Also refer to the use of this flag with the bus_dmamem_alloc() function.
This is a hint to the machine-dependent back-end that indicates the mapping will be used only for a device -> memory transaction. The back-end may perform optimizations based on this information.
This is a hint to the machine-dependent back-end that indicates the mapping will be used only for a memory -> device transaction. The back-end may perform optimizations based on this information.
As noted above, if a DMA handle is created with BUS_DMA_ALLOCNOW, bus_dmamap_load() will never block.
If a call to bus_dmamap_load() fails, the mapping in the DMA handle will be invalid. It is the responsibility of the caller to clean up any inconsistent device state resulting from incomplete iteration through the uio.
The bus_dmamap_load_mbuf() function is a variation of bus_dmamap_load() which maps mbuf chains for DMA transfers. Mbuf chains are assumed to be in kernel virtual address space.
The bus_dmamap_load_uio() function is a variation of bus_dmamap_load() which maps buffers pointed to by uio for DMA transfers. The value of uio->uio_segflg will determine if the buffers are in user or kernel virtual address space. If the buffers are in user address space, the buffers are assumed to be in uio->uio_procp's address space.
The bus_dmamap_load_raw() function is a variation of bus_dmamap_load() which maps buffers allocated by bus_dmamem_alloc() (see below). The segs argument is a bus_dma_segment_t array filled in by bus_dmamem_alloc(). The nsegs argument is the number of segments in the array. The size argument is the size of the DMA transfer.
The bus_dmamap_unload() function deletes the mappings for a given DMA handle. This function always succeeds if given valid arguments. Attempting to unload a map that is already unloaded is not valid.
The bus_dmamap_unload() arguments are as follows:
tag
The bus_dma_tag_t passed down from the parent driver via <bus>_attach_args.
dmam
The DMA handle containing the mappings which are to be deleted.
If the DMA handle was created with BUS_DMA_ALLOCNOW, bus_dmamap_unload() will not free the corresponding resources which were allocated by bus_dmamap_create(). This is to ensure that bus_dmamap_load() will never block on resources if the handle was created with BUS_DMA_ALLOCNOW.

void
bus_dmamap_sync(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_dmamap_t dmam, bus_addr_t offset, bus_size_t size, int ops);
The bus_dmamap_sync() function performs pre- and post-DMA operation cache and/or buffer synchronization. This function always succeeds if given valid arguments.
The bus_dmamap_sync() arguments are as follows:
tag
The bus_dma_tag_t passed down from the parent driver via <bus>_attach_args.
dmam
The DMA mapping to be synchronized.
offset
Offset in the DMA mapping to be synchronized.
size
The size of the region to be synchronized.
ops
One or more synchronization operations to perform. The following DMA synchronization operations are defined:
Perform any pre-read DMA cache and/or bounce operations.
Perform any post-read DMA cache and/or bounce operations.
Perform any pre-write DMA cache and/or bounce operations.
Perform any post-write DMA cache and/or bounce operations.
More than one operation may be performed in a given synchronization call. Mixing of PRE and POST operations is not allowed, and behavior is undefined if this is attempted.
Synchronization operations are expressed from the perspective of the host RAM, e.g., a device -> memory operation is a READ and a memory -> device operation is a WRITE.
bus_dmamap_sync() may consult state kept within the DMA map to determine if the memory is mapped in a DMA coherent fashion. If so, bus_dmamap_sync() may elect to skip certain expensive operations, such as flushing of the data cache. See bus_dmamem_map() for more information on this subject.
On platforms which implement reordered stores, bus_dmamap_sync() will always cause the store buffer to be flushed.
This function exists so that multiple read and write transfers can be performed with the same buffer, and so that drivers can explicitly inform the bus_dmamap_create code when their data is “ready” in its DMA buffer.
An example of multiple read-write use of a single mapping might look like:
bus_dmamap_load(...); 
 
while (not done) { 
	/* invalidate soon-to-be-stale cache blocks */ 
	bus_dmamap_sync(..., BUS_DMASYNC_PREREAD); 
 
	[ do read DMA ] 
 
	/* copy from bounce */ 
	bus_dmamap_sync(..., BUS_DMASYNC_POSTREAD); 
 
	/* read data now in driver-provided buffer */ 
 
	[ computation ] 
 
	/* data to be written now in driver-provided buffer */ 
 
	/* flush write buffers and writeback, copy to bounce */ 
	bus_dmamap_sync(..., BUS_DMASYNC_PREWRITE); 
 
	[ do write DMA ] 
 
	/* probably a no-op, but provided for consistency */ 
	bus_dmamap_sync(..., BUS_DMASYNC_POSTWRITE); 
} 
 
bus_dmamap_unload(...);
If DMA read and write operations are not preceded and followed by the appropriate synchronization operations, behavior is undefined.

int
bus_dmamem_alloc(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_size_t size, bus_size_t alignment, bus_size_t boundary, bus_dma_segment_t *segs, int nsegs, int *rsegs, int flags);
int
bus_dmamem_alloc_range(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_size_t size, bus_size_t alignment, bus_size_t boundary, bus_dma_segment_t *segs, int nsegs, int *rsegs, int flags, bus_addr_t low, bus_addr_t high);
void
bus_dmamem_free(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_dma_segment_t *segs, int nsegs);
The bus_dmamem_alloc() function allocates memory that is "DMA safe" for the bus corresponding to the given tag. This function returns 0 on success, or an error code indicating mode of failure.
The mapping of this memory is machine-dependent (or "opaque"); machine-independent code should not assume that the addresses returned are valid in kernel virtual address space, or that the addresses returned are system physical addresses. The address value returned as part of segs can thus not be used to program DMA controller address registers. Only the values in the dm_segs array of a successfully loaded DMA map (using bus_dmamap_load()) can be used for this purpose.
Allocations will always be rounded to the hardware page size. Callers may wish to take advantage of this, and cluster allocation of small data structures.
The bus_dmamem_alloc() arguments are as follows:
tag
The bus_dma_tag_t passed down from the parent driver via <bus>_attach_args.
size
The amount of memory to allocate.
alignment
Each segment in the allocated memory will be aligned to this value. If the alignment is less than a hardware page size, it will be rounded up to the hardware page size. This value must be a power of two.
boundary
Each segment in the allocated memory must not cross this boundary (relative to zero). This value must be a power of two. A boundary value less than the size of the allocation is invalid.
segs
The bus_dma_segment_t array, filled in as memory is allocated, representing the opaque addresses of the memory chunks.
nsegs
The number of segments available in segs. Used to specify the maximum number of segments that the allocated memory may be divided into.
rsegs
The number of segments used in segs. Used to return the actual number of segments the memory was divided into.
flags
Flags are defined as follows:
It is safe to wait (sleep) for resources during this call.
It is not safe to wait (sleep) for resources during this call.
The memory allocated should be zeroed.
Adjusts, if necessary, the size, alignment, and boundary constraints to conform to the platform-dependent requirements for the use of the BUS_DMA_STREAMING flag with the bus_dmamap_load() function. If the platform does not support the BUS_DMA_STREAMING feature, or if the size, alignment, and boundary constraints would already satisfy the platform's requirements, this flag is silently ignored. The BUS_DMA_STREAMING flag will never relax the constraints specified in the call.
These flags are placeholders, and may be used by buses to provide bus-dependent functionality.
The bus_dmamem_alloc_range() function is a variation of bus_dmamem_alloc() that allows specification of the "DMA safe" bus address range supported by the device. The additional low and high arguments specify the lowest and highest bus address that the device can use for DMA transfers. This function should only be used if that address range differs from the default address range for the bus.
All pages allocated by bus_dmamem_alloc() and bus_dmameme_alloc_range() will be wired down until they are freed by bus_dmamem_free().
The bus_dmamem_free() function frees memory previously allocated by bus_dmamem_alloc() or bus_dmamem_alloc_range(), invalidating any mapping. This function always succeeds if given valid arguments.
The bus_dmamem_free() arguments are as follows:
tag
The bus_dma_tag_t passed down from the parent driver via <bus>_attach_args.
segs
The bus_dma_segment_t array filled in by bus_dmamem_alloc().
nsegs
The number of segments in segs.

int
bus_dmamem_map(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_dma_segment_t *segs, int nsegs, size_t size, caddr_t *kvap, int flags);
void
bus_dmamem_unmap(bus_dma_tag_t tag, caddr_t kva, size_t size);
paddr_t
bus_dmamem_mmap(bus_dma_tag_t tag, bus_dma_segment_t *segs, int nsegs, off_t off, int prot, int flags);
The bus_dmamem_map() function maps memory allocated with bus_dmamem_alloc() or bus_dmamem_alloc_range() into kernel virtual address space. This function returns 0 on success, an error code otherwise, and must not be called from an interrupt context.
The bus_dmamem_map() arguments are as follows:
tag
The bus_dma_tag_t passed down from the parent driver via <bus>_attach_args.
segs
The bus_dma_segment_t array filled in by bus_dmamem_alloc(), representing the memory regions to map.
nsegs
The number of segments in segs.
size
The size of the mapping.
kvap
Filled in to specify the kernel virtual address where the memory is mapped.
flags
Flags are defined as follows:
It is safe to wait (sleep) for resources during this call.
It is not safe to wait (sleep) for resources during this call.
These flags are placeholders, and may be used by buses to provide bus-dependent functionality.
This flag is a hint to machine-dependent code. If possible, map the memory in such a way as it will be DMA coherent. This may include mapping the pages into uncached address space or setting the cache-inhibit bits in page table entries. If implementation of DMA coherent mappings is impossible, this is ignored.
Later, when this memory is loaded into a DMA map, machine-dependent code will take whatever steps are necessary to determine if the memory was mapped in a DMA coherent fashion. This may include checking if the kernel virtual address lies within uncached address space or if the cache-inhibit bits are set in page table entries. If it is determined that the mapping is DMA coherent, state may be placed into the DMA map for use by later calls to bus_dmamap_sync().
This flag is a hint to machine-dependent code. If possible, map the memory uncached.
The bus_dmamem_unmap() function unmaps memory previously mapped with bus_dmamem_map(), freeing the kernel virtual address space used by the mapping. This function always succeeds if given valid arguments, but must not be called from an interrupt context.
bus_dmamem_unmap() arguments are as follows:
tag
The bus_dma_tag_t passed down from the parent driver via <bus>_attach_args.
kva
The kernel virtual address of the mapped memory.
size
The size of the mapping.
The bus_dmamem_mmap() function provides support for user mmap(2)'ing of DMA-safe memory. bus_dmamem_mmap() is to be called by a device driver's (*d_mmap)() entry point, which is called by the device pager for each page to be mapped. This function returns a physical address to be passed to pmap_enter() by the device pager, or -1 on failure. bus_dmamem_mmap() arguments are as follows:
tag
The bus_dma_tag_t passed down from the parent driver via <bus>_attach_args.
segs
The bus_dma_segment_t array filled in by bus_dmamem_alloc(), representing the memory to be mmap(2)'ed.
nsegs
The number of elements in the segs array.
off
The offset of the page in DMA memory which is to be mapped.
prot
The protection codes for the mapping.
flags
Flags are defined as follows:
It is safe to wait (sleep) for resources during this call.
It is not safe to wait (sleep) for resources during this call.
These flags are placeholders, and may be used by buses to provide bus-dependent functionality.
See bus_dmamem_map() above for a description of this flag.
See bus_dmamem_map() above for a description of this flag.

bus_space(9)

The bus_dmamap_create interface appeared in NetBSD 1.3.

The bus_dmamap_create interface was designed and implemented by Jason R. Thorpe of the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility, NASA Ames Research Center. Additional input on the bus_dmamap_create design was provided by Chris Demetriou, Charles Hannum, Ross Harvey, Matthew Jacob, Jonathan Stone, and Matt Thomas.
November 23, 2015 OpenBSD-current