merge corresponding or subsequent lines
paste utility concatenates the
corresponding lines of the given input files, replacing all but the last
file's newline characters with a single tab character, and writes the
resulting lines to standard output. If end-of-file is reached on an input
file while other input files still contain data, the file is treated as if
it were an endless source of empty lines.
The options are as follows:
- Use one or more of the provided characters to replace the newline
characters instead of the default tab. The characters in
list are used circularly, i.e., when
list is exhausted the first character from
list is reused. This continues until a line from the
last input file (in default operation) or the last line in each file
-soption) is displayed, at which time
pastebegins selecting characters from the beginning of list again.
The following special characters can also be used in list:
- newline character
- tab character
- backslash character
- empty string (not a null character)
Any other character preceded by a backslash is equivalent to the character itself.
- Concatenate all of the lines of each separate input file in command line
order. The newline character of every line except the last line in each
input file is replaced with the tab character, unless otherwise specified
If “-” is specified for one or more of the input files, the standard input is used; standard input is read one line at a time, circularly, for each instance of “-”.
paste utility exits 0 on
success, and >0 if an error occurs.
List the files in the current directory in three columns:
$ ls | paste - - - $ ls | paste -s -d '\t\t\n' -
Combine pairs of lines from file into single lines:
$ paste - - < file $ paste -s -d '\t\n' file
Number the lines in file, similar to
$ sed = file | paste - - $ sed = file | paste -s -d '\t\n' -
Create a colon-separated list of directories named
bin, suitable for use in the
PATH environment variable:
$ find / -name bin -type d | paste -s -d : -
paste utility is compliant with the
IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (“POSIX.1”)
paste command first appeared outside
Bell Labs in Version 7 AT&T UNIX/32V and
has been available since 4.3BSD-Reno.
The original Bell Labs version was written by Gottfried W. R. Luderer and the BSD version by Adam S. Moskowitz.