indicate last logins of users, ttys,
last utility will either list the
sessions of specified users,
ttys, and hosts, in reverse time
order, or list the users logged in at a specified snapshot date and time in
reverse time order. Each line of output contains the user name, the tty from
which the session was conducted, any hostname, the start and stop times for
the session, and the duration of the session. If the session is still
continuing or was cut short by a crash or shutdown,
last will so indicate.
The options are as follows:
- Calculates the total time displayed and prints it after the output.
- Specify the snapshot date and time. All users logged in at the snapshot
date and time will be reported. This may be used with the
-foption to derive the results from stored wtmp files. When this argument is provided, all other options except for
-nare ignored. The argument should be in the form “[[[CC]YY]MMDD]hhmm[.SS]” where each pair of letters represents the following:
- The first two digits of the year (the century).
- The second two digits of the year. If “YY” is specified, but “CC” is not, a value for “YY” between 69 and 99 results in a “CC” value of 19. Otherwise, a “CC” value of 20 is used.
- Month of the year, from 1 to 12.
- Day of the month, from 1 to 31.
- Hour of the day, from 0 to 23.
- Minute of the hour, from 0 to 59.
- Second of the minute, from 0 to 61.
All but the “hh” and “mm” letter pairs are optional. If the “CC” and “YY” letter pairs are not specified, the values default to the current year. If the “MM” and “DD” letter pairs are not specified, the values default to the current month and day. If the “SS” letter pair is not specified, the value defaults to 0.
lastreads the file file instead of the default, /var/log/wtmp.
- host names may be names or internet numbers.
- Limits the report to number lines. The format
-number is also supported, but is deprecated.
- Display time values in seconds since the Epoch, instead of formatted dates.
- Display better time information, including seconds.
- Specify the tty. tty names may be given fully or
abbreviated, for example,
last -t 03is equivalent to
last -t tty03.
If multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is not
specified, the information which applies to any of the arguments is printed,
last root -t console would list all of
root's sessions as well as all sessions on the
console terminal. If no users, hostnames, or terminals are specified,
last prints a record of all logins and logouts.
The pseudo-user “reboot” logs in at reboots of the
last reboot will give an indication of
mean time between reboot.
last is interrupted, it indicates to
what date the search has progressed. If interrupted with a quit signal,
last indicates how far the search has progressed and
- login database
lastcomm(1), utmp(5), ac(8)
last utility first appeared in
The original version was written by Howard P. Katseff; Keith Bostic rewrote it in 1986/87 to add functionality and to improve code quality.