display disk usage
du utility displays the file system
block usage for each file argument and for each
directory in the file hierarchy rooted in each directory argument. Note that
the system block usage is usually greater than the actual size of the file.
If no file is specified, the block usage of the hierarchy rooted in the
current directory is displayed.
The options are as follows:
- Display entries for files in addition to entries for directories.
- Display the grand total after all the arguments have been processed.
- Do not display entries for files and directories more than
depth levels deep;
0has the same effect as
-s. Overrides earlier
- Symbolic links on the command line are followed. Symbolic links encountered in the tree traversal are not followed.
- "Human-readable" output. Use unit suffixes: Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte, Exabyte in order to reduce the number of digits to four or less.
- By default, all sizes are reported in 512-byte block counts. The
-koption causes the numbers to be reported in kilobyte counts.
- All symbolic links are followed.
- No symbolic links are followed.
- Generate messages about directories that cannot be read, files that cannot be opened, and so on. This is the default.
- Display only the total for each of the specified files and directories.
- File system mount points are not traversed.
It is not an error to specify more than one of the mutually
Where more than one of these options is specified, the last option given
overrides the others.
du counts the storage used by symbolic
links and not the files they reference unless the
-L option is specified. If either the
-L options are
specified, storage used by any symbolic links which are followed is not
counted or displayed. The
-P options override
each other and the command's actions are determined by the last one
Files having multiple hard links are counted (and displayed) a
single time per
- Block counts will be displayed in units of this size block, unless the
-hoption is specified.
du utility exits 0 on success,
and >0 if an error occurs.
Display a summary of files and folders in the current directory, sorted by size:
$ du -sh * .??* | sort -h
df(1), fts_open(3), symlink(7), quot(8)
du utility is compliant with the
IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (“POSIX.1”)
The flags [
-cdhP], as well as the
BLOCKSIZE environment variable, are extensions to
The flag [
-r] is accepted but ignored, for
compatibility with systems implementing the obsolete X/Open
Commands and Utilities Issue 5 (“XCU5”)
du utility and its
-s options first
appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.
-r option first appeared in
AT&T System III UNIX and is available
since OpenBSD 2.3. The
-x options first appeared in
-L options first appeared in the GNU fileutils;
-P are available
OpenBSD 2.1. The
first appeared in FreeBSD 2.2 and is available since
appeared in FreeBSD 4.0 and is available since
This version of
du was written by
Chris Newcomb for
4.3BSD-Reno in 1989 and incorporates later
contributions from Elan Amir, Keith
Bostic, Luke Mewburn, Matt
Bing, and Can Erkin Acar