|VMCTL(8)||System Manager's Manual||VMCTL(8)|
vmctl — control
the virtual machine daemon
||command [arg ...]|
vmctl utility is used to control the
virtual machine monitor (VMM) subsystem. A VMM manages virtual machines
(VMs) on a host. The VMM subsystem is responsible for creating, destroying,
and executing VMs.
Within the commands, the size argument can be specified with a human-readable scale, using the format described in scan_scaled(3). The id argument can be either a numeric, non-zero identifier or alternatively the name of a virtual machine.
The commands are as follows:
Note that the VM name supplied to the 'start' command can only consist of alphanumeric characters, including '.', '-', and '_'. The name cannot start with '.', '-' or '_'.
-i option is specified during VM
startup, a corresponding number of host-side
tap(4) interfaces will be
allocated and mapped to the
vio(4) interfaces inside the
guest VM. This tap/vio interface mapping allows guest network traffic to be
manipulated by the host. Any valid host-side interface configuration may be
performed on these tap interfaces, such as bridging (via
bridge(4)), or using
pf(4) nat-to rules to create
private or host-side NATed networks, as desired.
Local interfaces can be used to easily configure VM networking without needing to manually assign network addresses. A local interface is added to a VM using the -L option to the 'vmctl start' command and results in the addition of a vio(4) interface inside the VM and a corresponding tap(4) interface on the host. When using local interfaces, vmd(8) will provide DHCP services to the guest VM and offer addresses selected from the 100.64.0.0/10 IPv4 range. From within the 100.64.0.0/10 range, vmd(8) allocates a pair of addresses for the guest-side vio(4) and host-side tap(4) interfaces as follows:
For the first local interface:
For the second and subsequent local interface(s):
Multiple -L options can be provided to the 'vmctl start' command, if more than one interface is desired. Local interfaces are assigned to the VM before any other interfaces specified with the -i option (thus, local interfaces, if requested, are numbered starting at vio0 inside the guest VM).
When using local interfaces, the DHCP configuration offered to the guest VM specifies the address of the corresponding host tap(4) interface as both the default route and the (sole) nameserver. Guest VM traffic can optionally be NATed through the host with an entry in the host machine's /etc/pf.conf similar to the following (if desired):
pass out on $ext_if from 100.64.0.0/10 to any nat-to $ext_if
If NATing is desired, the net.inet.ip.forwarding sysctl must also be set to 1.
If desired, DNS queries originating from Guest VMs can be redirected to a different DNS server with an entry in the host machine's /etc/pf.conf similar to the following:
pass in proto udp from 100.64.0.0/10 to any port domain \ rdr-to $dns_server port domain
vmctl utility exits 0 on
success, and >0 if an error occurs.
may fail due to one of the following reasons:
Create a 4.5 Gigabyte disk image, disk.img:
$ vmctl create disk.img -s 4.5G
Create a new VM with 1GB memory, one network interface, one disk image ('disk.img') and boot from kernel '/bsd':
# vmctl start "myvm" -m 1G -i 1 -b /bsd -d disk.img
# ifconfig tap0 tap0: flags=8842<BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 lladdr fe:e1:ba:d8:50:d1 description: vm1-if0-myvm index 15 priority 0 llprio 3 groups: tap status: active
Terminate VM number 1:
# vmctl stop 1
vmctl command first appeared in
|September 5, 2017||OpenBSD-6.2|