|PS(1)||General Commands Manual||PS(1)|
ps — display
ps utility displays information about
active processes. When given no options,
information about processes of the current user that have a controlling
The information displayed is selected based on a set of keywords
(and for even more control, see the
-o options). The
default output format includes, for each process, the process's ID,
controlling terminal, state, CPU time (including both user and system time),
and associated command.
The options are as follows:
-uoption implies the
-voption implies the
-woption is specified more than once,
pswill use as many columns as necessary without regard for window size.
The following is a complete list of the available keywords and their meanings. Several of them have aliases, which are also noted.
pcpu. The CPU utilization of the process; this is a decaying average over up to a minute of previous (real) time. Since the time base over which this is computed varies (since processes may be very young) it is possible for the sum of all
%cpufields to exceed 100%.
pmem. The percentage of real memory used by this process.
acflg. Accounting flag.
args. Command and arguments.
f. The thread flags (in hexadecimal), as defined in the include file
P_INKTR 0x1 writing ktrace(2) record P_PROFPEND 0x2 this thread needs SIGPROF P_ALRMPEND 0x4 this thread needs SIGVTALRM P_SIGSUSPEND 0x8 need to restore before-suspend mask P_CANTSLEEP 0x10 this thread is not permitted to sleep P_SELECT 0x40 selecting; wakeup/waiting danger P_SINTR 0x80 sleep is interruptible P_SYSTEM 0x200 system process: no sigs, stats, or swapping P_TIMEOUT 0x400 timing out during sleep P_WEXIT 0x2000 working on exiting P_OWEUPC 0x8000 profiling sample needs recording P_SUSPSINGLE 0x80000 need to suspend for single threading P_SYSTRACE 0x400000 systrace(4) policy is active P_CONTINUED 0x800000 thread has continued after a stop P_THREAD 0x4000000 not the original thread P_SUSPSIG 0x8000000 stopped because of a signal P_SOFTDEP 0x10000000 stuck processing softdep worklist P_CPUPEG 0x40000000 do not move to another cpu
inblock. Total blocks read.
login. Login name of user who started the process.
ni. The process scheduling increment (see setpriority(2)).
nsignals. Total signals taken.
oublock. Total blocks written.
PS_CONTROLT 0x1 process has a controlling terminal PS_EXEC 0x2 process called exec(3) PS_INEXEC 0x4 process is doing an exec right now PS_EXITING 0x8 process is exiting PS_SUGID 0x10 process had set ID privileges since last exec PS_SUGIDEXEC 0x20 last exec(3) was set[ug]id PS_PPWAIT 0x40 parent is waiting for process to exec/exit PS_ISPWAIT 0x80 process is parent of PPWAIT child PS_PROFIL 0x100 process has started profiling PS_TRACED 0x200 process is being traced PS_WAITED 0x400 debugging process has waited for child PS_COREDUMP 0x800 busy coredumping PS_SINGLEEXIT 0x1000 other threads must die PS_SINGLEUNWIND 0x2000 other threads must unwind PS_NOZOMBIE 0x4000 pid 1 waits for me instead of dad PS_STOPPED 0x8000 just stopped, need to send SIGCHLD PS_SYSTEM 0x10000 No signals, stats or swapping PS_EMBRYO 0x20000 New process, not yet fledged PS_ZOMBIE 0x40000 Dead and ready to be waited for PS_NOBROADCASTKILL 0x80000 Process excluded from kill -1 PS_PLEDGE 0x100000 process has called pledge(2)
rssize. Resident set size + (text size / text use count).
pending. Pending signals.
caught. Caught signals.
ignored. Ignored signals.
blocked. Blocked signals.
etime. The time the command started. If the command started less than 24 hours ago, the start time is displayed using the “%l:%M%p” format described in strftime(3). If the command started less than 7 days ago, the start time is displayed using the “%a%I%p” format. Otherwise, the start time is displayed using the “%e%b%y” format.
stat. The state is given by a sequence of letters, for example, “RWN”. The first letter indicates the run state of the process:
Additional characters after these, if any, indicate additional state information:
cputime. Accumulated CPU time, user + system.
comm. Name to be used for accounting.
usrpri. Scheduling priority on return from system call.
vsize. Virtual size, in Kilobytes.
The following environment variables affect the execution of
ps utility exits 0 on success,
and >0 if an error occurs.
Display information on all system processes:
$ ps -auxw
ps utility is compliant with the
IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (“POSIX.1”)
specification, except that the flag [
unsupported and the flags [
-ptU] support only single
arguments, not lists.
The flags [
-defglnu] are marked by
IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (“POSIX.1”) as
being an X/Open System Interfaces option. Of these,
-dfgn] are not supported by this implementation of
ps; behaviour for the flags
-elu] differs between this implementation and the
X/Open System Interfaces option of IEEE Std 1003.1-2008
The flags [
extensions to IEEE Std 1003.1-2008
Only the following keywords are recognised by
IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (“POSIX.1”):
ps command appeared in
Version 3 AT&T UNIX in section 8 of the
When printing using the
command keyword, a
process that has exited and has a parent that has not yet waited for the
process (in other words, a zombie) is listed as
“⟨defunct⟩”, and a process which is blocked
while trying to exit is listed as “⟨exiting⟩”.
ps makes an educated guess as to the file name and
arguments given when the process was created by examining memory or the swap
area. The method is inherently somewhat unreliable and in any event a
process is entitled to destroy this information, so the names cannot be
depended on too much. The
ucomm (accounting) keyword
can, however, be depended on.
ps cannot run faster than the system
and is run as any other scheduled process, the information it displays can
never be exact.
|October 22, 2015||OpenBSD-5.9|