match filename or pathname using shell
char *pattern, const char
function matches patterns according to the globbing rules used by the shell.
It checks the string specified by the string argument
to see if it matches the pattern specified by the
The flags argument modifies the
interpretation of pattern and
string. The value of flags is
the bitwise inclusive OR of any of the following constants, which are
defined in the include file
- Normally, every occurrence of a backslash (‘\’) followed by
a character in pattern is replaced by that
character. This is done to negate any special meaning for the character.
FNM_NOESCAPEflag is set, a backslash character is treated as an ordinary character.
- Slash characters in string must be explicitly matched by slashes in pattern. If this flag is not set, then slashes are treated as regular characters.
- Leading periods in string must be explicitly matched
by periods in pattern. If this flag is not set, then
leading periods are treated as regular characters. The definition of
“leading” is related to the specification of
FNM_PATHNAME. A period is always leading if it is the first character in string. Additionally, if
FNM_PATHNAMEis set, a period is leading if it immediately follows a slash.
- Ignore ‘/*’ rest after successful pattern matching.
- Ignore case distinctions in both the pattern and the string.
fnmatch() function returns zero if
string matches the pattern specified by
pattern, otherwise, it returns the value
sh(1), glob(3), regex(3), glob(7)
fnmatch() function conforms to
IEEE Std 1003.2-1992 (“POSIX.2”) and
X/Open Portability Guide Issue 4, Version 2
Note, however, that the flags
FNM_CASEFOLD are extensions and should not be used
by applications striving for strict standards conformance.
A predecessor to
gmatch(), first appeared in the Programmer's
Workbench (PWB/UNIX). The
fnmatch() function first
appeared in 4.4BSD.
The pattern ‘
*’ matches the
empty string, even if
FNM_PATHNAME is specified.