|WAIT(2)||System Calls Manual||WAIT(2)|
wait for process termination
wpid, int *status,
options, struct rusage
wpid, int *status,
wait() function suspends execution of
its calling process until status information is
available for a terminated child process, or a signal is received. On return
from a successful
wait() call, the
status area, if non-zero, is filled in with
termination information about the process that exited (see below).
wait4() call provides a more general
interface for programs that need to wait for certain child processes, that
need resource utilization statistics accumulated by child processes, or that
require options. The other wait functions are implemented using
The wpid parameter specifies the set of child processes for which to wait. The following symbolic constants are currently defined in ⟨sys/wait.h⟩:
#define WAIT_ANY (-1) /* any process */ #define WAIT_MYPGRP 0 /* any process in my process group */
If wpid is set to
WAIT_ANY, the call waits for any child process. If
wpid is set to
the call waits for any child process in the process group of the caller. If
wpid is greater than zero, the call waits for the
process with process ID wpid. If
wpid is less than -1, the call waits for any process
whose process group ID equals the absolute value of
The status parameter is defined below. The options parameter contains the bitwise OR of any of the following options:
SIGSTOPsignal also have their status reported.
If rusage is non-zero, a summary of the resources used by the terminated process and all its children is returned (this information is currently not available for stopped processes).
WNOHANG option is specified and
no processes wish to report status,
a process ID of 0.
waitpid() call is identical to
wait4() with an rusage value
of zero. The older
wait3() call is the same as
wait4() with a wpid value of
The following macros may be used to test the manner of exit of the process. One of the first three macros will evaluate to a non-zero (true) value:
WUNTRACEDoption or if the child process is being traced (see ptrace(2)).
Depending on the values of those macros, the following macros produce the remaining status information about the child process:
WIFEXITED(status) is true, evaluates to the low-order 8 bits of the argument passed to _exit(2) or exit(3) by the child.
WIFSIGNALED(status) is true, evaluates to the number of the signal that caused the termination of the process.
WIFSIGNALED(status) is true, evaluates as true if the termination of the process was accompanied by the creation of a core file containing an image of the process when the signal was received.
WIFSTOPPED(status) is true, evaluates to the number of the signal that caused the process to stop.
See sigaction(2) for a list of termination signals. A status of 0 indicates normal termination.
If a parent process terminates without waiting for all of its child processes to terminate, the remaining child processes are assigned the parent process 1 ID (the init process ID).
If a signal is caught while any of the
wait() calls is pending, the call may be interrupted
or restarted when the signal-catching routine returns, depending on the
options in effect for the signal; for further information, see
wait() returns due to a stopped or
terminated child process, the process ID of the child is returned to the
calling process. Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned and
errno is set to indicate the error.
due to a stopped or terminated child process, the process ID of the child is
returned to the calling process. If there are no children not previously
awaited, -1 is returned with errno set to
ECHILD]. Otherwise, if
WNOHANG is specified and there are no stopped or
exited children, 0 is returned. If an error is detected or a caught signal
aborts the call, a value of -1 is returned and errno
is set to indicate the error.
wait() will fail and return immediately
waitpid() functions are defined by POSIX;
wait3() are not
specified by POSIX. The
WCOREDUMP() macro and the
ability to restart a pending
wait() call are
extensions to the POSIX interface.
wait() system call first appeared in
Version 1 AT&T UNIX. The
status argument is accepted since
Version 2 AT&T UNIX. A
wait3() system call first appeared in
4BSD, but the final calling convention was only
established in 4.2BSD. The
function calls first appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.
|November 17, 2011||OpenBSD-5.1|