|MAIL(1)||General Commands Manual||MAIL(1)|
The options are as follows:
~command character, used when sending mail, is only available interactively.
-sflag is used as a subject; be careful to quote subjects containing spaces).
$ mail -f /var/mail/user
except that locking is done.
At startup time,
option. Next, the commands in the user's personal command file
~/.mailrc are executed.
To send a message to one or more people,
In normal usage,
p). Moving among the messages is much like moving
between lines in ed(1); you may
- to shift
forwards and backwards, or simply enter a message number to move
After examining a message you can
r) to it. Deletion causes the
u) by giving its number, or the
x) command. Deleted
messages, however, will usually disappear, never to be seen again.
Commands such as
delete can be given a list of message numbers as
arguments to apply to a number of messages at once. Thus
delete 1 2 deletes messages 1 and 2, while
delete 1-5 deletes messages 1 through 5. The special
name ‘*’ addresses all messages and ‘$’
addresses the last message; thus the command
which prints the first few lines of a message could be used in
top * to print the first few lines of all
You can use the
reply command to set up a
response to a message, sending it back to the person who it was from. Text
you then type in, up to an end-of-file, defines the contents of the message.
While you are composing a message,
~m (alone on a line) will place a
copy of the current message into the response, right shifting it by a single
tab-stop (see the indentprefix variable, below). Other
escapes will set up subject fields, add and delete recipients to the
message, and allow you to escape to an editor to revise the message or to a
shell to run some commands. (These options are given in the summary
You can end a
q) command. Messages
which have been examined go to your mbox file unless
they have been deleted, in which case they are discarded. Unexamined
messages go back to the post office (see the
It is also possible to create personal distribution lists so that,
for instance, you can send mail to
cohorts” and have it go to a group of
people. Such lists can be defined by placing a line like
alias cohorts bill ozalp jkf mark kridle@ucbcory
in the file .mailrc in your home
directory. The current list of such aliases can be displayed with the
alias command in
reply to the recipients. System wide aliases are not
expanded when the mail is sent, but any reply returned to the machine will
have the system wide alias expanded as all mail goes through
See mailaddr(7) for a description of network addresses.
set askcc enables the askcc
feature. (These options are summarized below.)
(Adapted from the “Mail Reference Manual”.)
Each command is typed on a line by itself, and may take arguments
following the command word. The command need not be typed in its entirety --
the first command which matches the typed prefix is used. For commands which
take message lists as arguments, if no message list is given, then the next
message forward which satisfies the command's requirements is used. If there
are no messages forward of the current message, the search proceeds
backwards, and if there are no good messages at all,
a) With no arguments, prints out all currently defined aliases. With one argument, prints out that alias. With more than one argument, creates a new alias or changes an old one.
alternatescommand is useful if you have accounts on several machines. It can be used to inform
alternateslist. If the
alternatescommand is given with no argument, the current set of alternate names is displayed.
c) Changes the user's working directory to that specified, if given. If no directory is given, then changes to the user's login directory.
copycommand does the same thing that
savedoes, except that it does not mark the messages it is used on for deletion when you quit.
d) Takes a list of messages as argument and marks them all as deleted. Deleted messages will not be saved in mbox, nor will they be available for most other commands.
dt) Deletes the current message and prints the next message. If there is no next message,
No more messages.”
e) Takes a list of messages and points the text editor at each one in turn. On return from the editor, the message is read back in.
x) Effects an immediate return to the shell without modifying the user's system mailbox, his mbox file, or his edit file in
fi) The same as
foldercommand switches to a new mail file or folder. With no arguments, it tells you which file you are currently reading. If you give it an argument, it will write out changes (such as deletions) you have made in the current file and read in the new file. Some special conventions are recognized for the name. # means the previous file, % means your system mailbox, %user means user's system mailbox, & means your mbox file, and +folder means a file in your folder directory.
f) Takes a list of messages and prints their message headers.
h) Lists the current windowful of headers. To view the next or previous group of headers, see the
preserve) Takes a message list and marks each message therein to be saved in the user's system mailbox instead of in mbox. Does not override the
ignoreis executed with no arguments, it lists the current set of ignored fields.
l) List the valid
m) Takes as argument login names and distribution group names and sends mail to those people.
mo) Takes a message list and invokes the pager on that list.
+or CR) Goes to the next message in sequence and types it. With an argument list, types the next matching message.
pre) A synonym for
p) Takes a message list and types out each message on the user's terminal.
q) Terminates the session, saving all undeleted, unsaved messages in the user's mbox file in his login directory, preserving all messages marked with
preserveor never referenced in his system mailbox, and removing all other messages from his system mailbox. If new mail has arrived during the session, the message “
You have new mail” is given. If given while editing a mailbox file with the
-fflag, then the edit file is rewritten. A return to the shell is effected, unless the rewrite of edit file fails, in which case the user can escape with the
R) Reply to originator. Does not reply to other recipients of the original message.
r) Takes a message list and sends mail to the sender and all recipients of the specified message. The default message must not be deleted.
retainis executed with no arguments, it lists the current set of retained fields.
s) Takes a message list and a filename and appends each message in turn to the end of the file. The filename in quotes, followed by the line count and character count is echoed on the user's terminal.
type. Header fields thus marked are filtered out when saving a message by
saveor when automatically saving to mbox.
type. Header fields thus marked are the only ones saved with a message when saving by
saveor when automatically saving to mbox.
se) With no arguments, prints all variable values. Otherwise, sets option. Arguments are of the form option=value (no space before or after =) or option. Quotation marks may be placed around any part of the assignment statement to quote blanks or tabs, i.e.,
sh) Invokes an interactive version of the shell.
sourcecommand reads commands from a file.
toplinesand defaults to five.
T) Identical to the
t) A synonym for
aliascommands and discards the remembered groups of users. The group names no longer have any significance.
u) Takes a message list and marks each message as not being deleted.
U) Takes a message list and marks each message as not having been read.
v) Takes a message list and invokes the display editor on each message.
w) Similar to
save, except that
onlythe message body (without the header) is saved. Extremely useful for such tasks as sending and receiving source program text over the message system.
x) A synonym for
headerscommand. You can move
zcommand. Also, you can move to the previous window by using
Here is a summary of the tilde escapes, which are used when
composing messages to perform special functions. Tilde escapes are only
recognized at the beginning of lines. The name “tilde escape”
is somewhat of a misnomer since the actual escape character can be set by
~f, except all message headers are included.
retaincommand) are not included.
~m, except all message headers are included.
retaincommand) are not included.
VISUALoption) on the message collected so far. Usually, the alternate editor will be a screen editor. After you quit the editor, you may resume appending text to the end of your message.
commandto rejustify the message.
Options are controlled via
unset commands. Options may be either binary, in
which case it is only significant to see whether they are set or not; or
string, in which case the actual value is of interest. The binary options
include the following:
inccommand at each prompt, except that the current message is not reset when new mail arrives.
deletecommand to behave like
dp; thus, after deleting a message, the next one will be typed automatically.
-don the command line and causes
savecommand are not normally saved in mbox at quit time. Use this option to retain those messages.
-Nflag on the command line.
-vflag on the command line. When
~eescape. If not defined, /usr/bin/ex is used.
folderscommand. Default is /bin/ls.
mbox” in the user's home directory.
morecommand or when the crt variable is set. The default paginator more(1) is used if this option is not defined.
!command and the
~!escape. A default shell is used if this option is not defined.
~vescape. If not defined, /usr/bin/vi is used.
PAGERis used to read it. If crt is set without a value, then the height of the terminal screen stored in the system is used to compute the threshold (see stty(1)).
~mtilde escape for indenting messages, in place of the normal tab character (‘^I’). Be sure to quote the value if it contains spaces or tabs.
topcommand; normally, the first five lines are printed.
USER environment variables.
mailx utility is compliant with the
IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (“POSIX.1”)
The flags [
-bcdEIv] are extensions to that
There are some flags that are not documented here. Most are not useful to the general user.
mailx are just links to
|November 7, 2010||OpenBSD-5.1|