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ISAKMPD(8)              OpenBSD System Manager's Manual             ISAKMPD(8)

     isakmpd - ISAKMP/Oakley a.k.a. IKE key management daemon

     isakmpd [-c config-file] [-d] [-D class=level] [-f fifo] [-i pid-file]
             [-n] [-p listen-port] [-P local-port] [-L] [-l packetlog-file]
             [-r seed] [-R report-file]

     The isakmpd daemon establishes security associations for encrypted and/or
     authenticated network traffic.  At this moment, and probably forever,
     this means ipsec(4) traffic.

     The way isakmpd goes about its work is by maintaining an internal config-
     uration as well as a policy database which describes what kinds of SAs to
     negotiate, and by listening for different events that triggers these ne-
     gotiations.  The events that control isakmpd consists of negotiation ini-
     tiations from a remote party, user input via a FIFO or by signals, up-
     calls from the kernel via a PF_KEY socket, and lastly by scheduled events
     triggered by timers running out.

     Most uses of isakmpd will be to implement so called "virtual private net-
     works" or VPNs for short.  The vpn(8) manual page describes how to setup
     isakmpd for a simple VPN.  For other uses, some more knowledge of IKE as
     a protocol is required.  One source of information are the RFCs mentioned

     The options are as follows:

     -c config-file
             If given, the -c option specifies an alternate configuration file
             instead of /etc/isakmpd/isakmpd.conf. As this file may contain
             sensitive information, it must be readable only by the user run-
             ning the daemon.

     -d      The -d option is used to make the daemon run in the foreground,
             logging to stderr.

     -D class=level
             Debugging class.  This argument is possible to specify many
             times.  It takes a parameter of the form class=level where both
             class and level are numbers.  class denotes a debugging class,
             and level the level you want that debugging class to limit debug
             printouts at (i.e., all debug printouts above the level specified
             will not output anything).  If class is set to 'A', then all de-
             bugging classes are set to the specified level.

             Valid values for class are as follows:

                   0  Misc
                   1  Transport
                   2  Message
                   3  Crypto
                   4  Timer
                   5  Sysdep
                   6  SA
                   7  Exchange
                   8  Negotiation
                   9  Policy
                   A  All

             Currently used values for level are 0 to 99.

     -f fifo
             The -f option specifies the FIFO (a.k.a. named pipe) where the
             daemon listens for user requests.  If the path given is a dash
             (`-'), isakmpd will listen to stdin instead.

     -i pid-file
             By default the PID of the daemon process will be written to
             /var/run/ This path can be overridden by specifying
             another one as the argument to the -i option.

     -n      When the -n option is given, the kernel will not take part in the
             negotiations.  This is a non-destructive mode so to say, in that
             it won't alter any SAs in the IPsec stack.

     -p listen-port
             The -p option specifies the listen port the daemon will bind to.

     -P local-port
             On the other hand, the port specified to capital -P will be what
             the daemon binds its local end to when acting as initiator.

     -L      Enable IKE packet capture. When this option is given, isakmpd
             will capture to file an unencrypted copy of the negotiation pack-
             ets it is sending and receiveing. This file can later be read by
             tcpdump(8) and other utilities using pcap(3).

     -l packetlog-file
             As option -L above, but capture to a specified file.

     -r seed
             If given a deterministic random number sequence will be used in-
             ternally.  This is useful for setting up regression tests.

     -R report-file
             When you signal isakmpd a SIGUSR1 it will report its internal
             state to a report file, normally /var/run/, but
             this can be changed by feeding the file name as an argument to
             the -R flag.

   Setting up an IKE public key infrastructure (a.k.a. PKI)
     In order to use public key based authentication, there has to be an in-
     frastructure managing the key signing.  Either there is an already exist-
     ing PKI isakmpd should take part in, or there will be a need to setup
     one.  In the former case, what is needed to be done varies depending on
     the actual Certificate Authority used, and is therefore not covered here,
     more than mentioning that openssl(1) needs to be used to create a cer-
     tificate signing request that the CA understands.  The latter case howev-
     er is described here:

     1.   Create your own CA as root.

          # openssl genrsa -out /etc/ssl/private/ca.key 1024
          # openssl req -new -key /etc/ssl/private/ca.key \
                  -out /etc/ssl/private/ca.csr

          You are now being asked to enter information that will be incorpo-
          rated into your certificate request.  What you are about to enter is
          what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.  There are quite a few
          fields but you can leave some blank.  For some fields there will be
          a default value, if you enter '.', the field will be left blank.

          # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in /etc/ssl/private/ca.csr \
                  -signkey /etc/ssl/private/ca.key \
                  -extfile /etc/ssl/x509v3.cnf -extensions x509v3_CA \
                  -out /etc/ssl/ca.crt

     2.   Create keys and certificates for your IKE peers.  This step as well
          as the next one, needs to be done for every peer.  Furthermore the
          last step will need to be done once for each ID you want the peer to
          have.  The below symbolizes that ID, and should be changed
          for each invocation.  You will be asked for a DN for each run too.
          See to encode the ID in the common name too, so it gets unique.

          # openssl genrsa -out /etc/isakmpd/private/local.key 1024
          # openssl req -new -key /etc/isakmpd/private/local.key \
                  -out /etc/isakmpd/private/

          Now take these certificate signing requests to your CA and process
          them like below.  You have to add some extensions to the certificate
          in order to make it usable for isakmpd. There are two possible ways
          to add the extensions to the certificate.  Either you have to to run
          certpatch(8) or you have to make use of an OpenSSL configuration
          file, for example /etc/ssl/x509v3.cnf. Replace with the IP-
          address which isakmpd will be using for identity.

          For using certpach(8), do the following

          # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in -CA /etc/ssl/ca.crt \
                  -CAkey /etc/ssl/private/ca.key -CAcreateserial \
          # certpatch -i -k /etc/ssl/private/ca.key \

          Otherwise do

          # setenv CERTIP
          # openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in -CA /etc/ssl/ca.crt \
                  -CAkey /etc/ssl/private/ca.key -CAcreateserial \
                  -extfile /etc/ssl/x509v3.cnf -extensions x509v3_IPAddr \

          Put the certificate (the file ending in .crt) in /etc/isakmpd/certs/
          on your local system.  Also carry over the CA cert /etc/ssl/ca.crt
          and put it in /etc/isakmpd/ca/.

     It is also possible to store trusted public keys to make them directly
     usable by isakmpd. The keys should be saved in PEM format (see
     openssl(1)) and named and stored after this easy formula:

     For IPv4 identities   /etc/isakmpd/pubkeys/ipv4/A.B.C.D

     For IPv6 identities   /etc/isakmpd/pubkeys/ipv6/abcd:abcd::ab:bc

     For FQDN identities   /etc/isakmpd/pubkeys/fqdn/

     For UFQDN identities  /etc/isakmpd/pubkeys/ufqdn/

     The -P flag does not do what we document, rather it does nothing.

     When storing a trusted public key for an IPv6 identity, the most
     efficient form of address representation, i.e "::" instead of ":0:0:0:",
     must be used or the matching will fail.  isakmpd uses the output from
     getnameinfo(3) for the address-to-name translation.

     /etc/isakmpd/ca/             The directory where CA certificates can be


     /etc/isakmpd/certs/          The directory where IKE certificates can be
                                  found, both the local certificate(s) and
                                  those of the peers, if a choice to have them
                                  kept permanently has been made.

     /etc/isakmpd/isakmpd.conf    The configuration file. As this file can
                                  contain sensitive information it must not be
                                  readable by anyone but the user running

     /etc/isakmpd/isakmpd.policy  The keynote policy configuration file.  The
                                  same mode requirements as isakmpd.conf.

                                  A local private key for certificate based
                                  authentication.  There has to be a certifi-
                                  cate for this key in the certificate direc-
                                  tory mentioned above.  The same mode re-
                                  quirements as isakmpd.conf.

     /etc/isakmpd/pubkeys/        Directory in which trusted public keys can
                                  be kept. The keys must be named after a
                                  fashion described above.

     /var/run/         The PID of the current daemon.

     /var/run/isakmpd.fifo        The FIFO used to manually control isakmpd.

     /var/run/isakmpd.pcap        The default IKE packet capture file.

     /var/run/      The report file written when SIGUSR1 is re-

     /usr/share/ipsec/isakmpd/    A directory containing some sample isakmpd
                                  and keynote policy configuration files.

     ipsec(4), isakmpd.conf(5), isakmpd.policy(5), getnameinfo(3), openssl(1),
     pcap(3), photurisd(8), ssl(8), tcpdump(8), vpn(8)

     The ISAKMP/Oakley key management protocol is described in the RFCs RFC
     2407, RFC 2408 and RFC 2409. This implementation was done 1998 by Niklas
     Hallqvist and Niels Provos, sponsored by Ericsson Radio Systems.

OpenBSD 3.0                      July 31, 1998                               4