|LS(1)||General Commands Manual||LS(1)|
ls — list
For each file operand that names a file of a
type other than directory,
ls displays its name as
well as any requested, associated information. For each
file operand that names a file of type directory,
ls displays the names of files contained within that
directory, as well as any requested, associated information.
If no operands are given, the contents of the current directory are displayed. If more than one operand is given, non-directory operands are displayed first; directory and non-directory operands are sorted separately and in lexicographical order.
The following options are available:
.’ and ‘
..’. Always set for the super-user.
-B, but use C escape codes whenever possible.
-l) or sorting (
-Rif also given.
-l, except that the owner is not printed.
-soptions, causing the sizes to be reported in bytes displayed in a human readable format. Overrides
-soption, causing the sizes to be reported in kilobytes. Overrides
-l, for example.
-soptions, causing the sizes or block counts reported to be separated with commas (or a locale appropriate separator) resulting in a more readable output. Overrides
-h; does not override
-l, except that the owner and group IDs are displayed numerically rather than converting to a owner or group name.
-l) output. If no file flags are set, “-” is displayed. (See chflags(1) for a list of possible flags and their meanings.)
BLOCKSIZE(see ENVIRONMENT) where partial units are rounded up to the next integer value. If the output is to a terminal, a total sum for all the file sizes is output on a line before the listing.
-l(the lowercase letter “ell”) option, display complete time information for the file, including month, day, hour, minute, second, and year.
-l) or sorting (
-w options all
override each other; the last one specified determines the format used for
-x options all
override each other; the last one specified determines the format used with
the exception that if both
-g are specified,
-g, even if
-g was specified last.
ls lists one entry per line to
standard output; the exceptions are to terminals or when the
-m options are
File information is displayed with one or more
⟨blank⟩ characters separating the information associated with
-l option is given, the following
information is displayed for each file:
In addition, for each directory whose contents are displayed, the
total number of file system blocks in units of 512 bytes or
ENVIRONMENT) used by the files in the
directory is displayed on a line by itself immediately before the
information for the files in the directory.
If the owner or group names are not a known owner or group name,
-n option is given, the numeric ID's are
If the file is a character special or block special file, the major and minor device numbers for the file are displayed in the size field. If the file is a symbolic link the pathname of the linked-to file is preceded by “->”.
The file mode printed under the
consists of the entry type, owner permissions, group permissions, and other
permissions. The entry type character describes the type of file, as
The next three fields are three characters each: owner permissions, group permissions, and other permissions. Each field has three character positions:
These next two apply only to the third character in the last group (other permissions).
The number of bytes displayed for a directory is a function of the number of dirent(3) structures in the directory, not all of which may be allocated to any existing file.
The following environment variables affect the execution of
BLOCKSIZEis set, and the
-koption is not specified, the block counts (see
-s) will be displayed in units of that size block.
lsutility calculates how many pathname text columns to display based on the width provided. (See
ls utility exits 0 on success,
and >0 if an error occurs.
The group field is now automatically included in the long listing for files in order to be compatible with the IEEE Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.2”) specification.
ls utility is expected to be a
superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2
ls utility appeared in
Version 5 AT&T UNIX.
|April 2, 2014||NetBSD-7.0.1|