unveil parts of a restricted filesystem
char *path, const char
The first call to
that specifies a path removes visibility of the entire
filesystem from all other filesystem-related system calls (such as
rename(2)), except for the specified path and
system call remains capable of traversing to any path
in the filesystem, so additional calls can set permissions at other points
in the filesystem hierarchy.
After establishing a collection of
path and permissions rules,
future calls to
can be disabled by passing two
Alternatively, pledge(2) may be used to remove the "unveil" promise.
The permissions argument points to a string consisting of zero or more of the following characters:
- Make path available for read operations, corresponding to the pledge(2) promise "rpath".
- Make path available for write operations, corresponding to the pledge(2) promise "wpath".
- Make path available for execute operations, corresponding to the pledge(2) promise "exec".
- Allow path to be created and removed, corresponding to the pledge(2) promise "cpath".
A path that is a directory
will enable all filesystem access underneath path
using permissions if and only if no more specific
exists at a lower level. Directories are remembered at the time of a call to
unveil(). This means that a directory that is
removed and recreated after a call to
appear to not exist.
Non-directory paths are remembered by name within
their containing directory, and so may be created, removed, or re-created
after a call to
and still appear to exist.
Attempts to access paths not allowed by
will result in an error of
EACCES when the
permissions argument does not match the attempted
ENOENT is returned for paths for which no
unveil() permissions qualify. After a process has
terminated, lastcomm(1) will mark it with the ‘U’ flag if file
access was prevented by
use can be tricky because programs misbehave badly when their files
unexpectedly disappear. In many cases it is easier to unveil the directories
in which an application makes use of files.
Upon successful completion, the value 0 is returned; otherwise the value -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set to indicate the error.
- The addition of path would exceed the per-process limit for unveiled paths.
- path or permissions points outside the process's allocated address space.
- A directory in path did not exist.
- An invalid value of permissions was used.
- An attempt to increase permissions was made, or the
path was not accessible, or
unveil() was called after locking.
unveil() system call first appeared in