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SYSLOGD(8) System Manager's Manual SYSLOGD(8)

NAME

syslogdlog system messages

SYNOPSIS

syslogd [-46dFhnuVZ] [-a path] [-C CAfile] [-c cert_file] [-f config_file] [-K CAfile] [-k key_file] [-m mark_interval] [-p log_socket] [-S listen_address] [-s reporting_socket] [-T listen_address] [-U bind_address]

DESCRIPTION

syslogd writes system messages to log files or a user's terminal. Output can be sent to other programs for further processing. It can also securely send and receive log messages to and from remote hosts.
The options are as follows:
 
 
-4
Forces syslogd to use only IPv4 addresses for UDP.
 
 
-6
Forces syslogd to use only IPv6 addresses for UDP.
 
 
-a path
Specify a location where syslogd should place an additional log socket. The primary use for this is to place additional log sockets in /dev/log of various chroot filespaces, though the need for these is less urgent after the introduction of sendsyslog(2).
 
 
-C CAfile
PEM encoded file containing CA certificates used for certificate validation of a remote loghost; the default is /etc/ssl/cert.pem.
 
 
-c cert_file
PEM encoded file containing the client certificate for TLS connections to a remote host. The default is not to use a client certificate for the connection to a syslog server. This option has to be used together with -k key_file.
 
 
-d
Enable debugging to the standard output, and do not disassociate from the controlling terminal.
 
 
-F
Run in the foreground instead of disassociating from the controlling terminal and running as a background daemon.
 
 
-f config_file
Specify the pathname of an alternate configuration file; the default is /etc/syslog.conf.
 
 
-h
Include the hostname when forwarding messages to a remote host.
 
 
-K CAfile
PEM encoded file containing CA certificates used for client certificate validation on the local server socket. By default incoming connections from any TLS server are allowed.
 
 
-k key_file
PEM encoded file containing the client private key for TLS connections to a remote host. This option has to be used together with -c cert_file.
 
 
-m mark_interval
Select the number of minutes between “mark” messages; the default is 20 minutes.
 
 
-n
Print source addresses numerically rather than symbolically. This saves an address-to-name lookup for each incoming message, which can be useful when combined with the -u option on a loghost with no DNS cache. Messages from the local host will still be logged with the symbolic local host name.
 
 
-p log_socket
Specify the pathname of an alternate log socket to be used instead; the default is /dev/log.
 
 
-S listen_address
Create a TLS listen socket for receiving encrypted messages and bind it to the specified address. A port number may be specified using the host:port syntax. The parameter is also used to find a suitable server key and certificate in /etc/ssl/.
 
 
-s reporting_socket
Specify path to an AF_LOCAL socket for use in reporting logs stored in memory buffers using syslogc(8).
 
 
-T listen_address
Create a TCP listen socket for receiving messages and bind it to the specified address. There is no well-known port for syslog over TCP, so a port number must be specified using the host:port syntax.
 
 
-U bind_address
Create a UDP socket for receiving messages and bind it to the specified address. This can be used, for example, with a pf divert-to rule to receive packets when syslogd is bound to localhost. A port number may be specified using the host:port syntax.
 
 
-u
Select the historical “insecure” mode, in which syslogd will accept input from the UDP port. Some software wants this, but you can be subjected to a variety of attacks over the network, including attackers remotely filling logs.
 
 
-V
Do not perform remote server certificate and hostname validation when sending messages.
 
 
-Z
Generate timestamps in ISO format. This includes the year and the timezone, and all logging is done in UTC.
The options -a, -T, and -U can be given more than once to specify multiple input sources.
syslogd reads its configuration file, syslog.conf(5), when it starts up and whenever it receives a hangup signal. It creates the file /var/run/syslog.pid and stores its process ID there. The PID can be used to kill or reconfigure syslogd.
syslogd opens a UDP socket, as specified in /etc/services, for sending forwarded messages. By default all incoming data on this socket is discarded. If insecure mode is switched on with -u, it will also read messages from the socket. syslogd also opens and reads messages from the UNIX-domain socket /dev/log, and from the special device /dev/klog (to read kernel messages), and from sendsyslog(2) (to read messages from userland processes).
The message sent to syslogd should consist of a single line. The message can contain a priority code, which should be a preceding decimal number in angle braces, for example, “<5>”. This priority code should map into the priorities defined in the include file <sys/syslog.h>.
When sending syslog messages to a remote loghost via TLS, the server's certificate and hostname are validated to prevent malicious servers from reading messages. If the server has a certificate with a matching hostname signed by a CA in /etc/ssl/cert.pem, it is verified with that by default. If the server has a certificate with a matching hostname signed by a private CA, use the -C option and put that CA into CAfile. Validation can be explicitly turned off using the -V option. If the server is accepting messages only from clients with a trusted client certificate, use the -k and -c options to authenticate syslogd with this certificate.
When receiving syslog messages from a TLS client, there must be a server key and certificate in /etc/ssl/private/host[:port].key and /etc/ssl/host[:port].crt. If the client uses certificates to authenticate, the CA of the client's certificate may be added to CAfile using the -K option to protect from messages being spoofed by malicious clients.

FILES

/dev/log
Name of the UNIX-domain datagram log socket.
/dev/klog
Kernel log device.
/etc/ssl/
Private keys and public certificates.
/etc/syslog.conf
Configuration file.
/var/run/syslog.pid
Process ID of current syslogd.

SEE ALSO

logger(1), syslog(3), services(5), syslog.conf(5), newsyslog(8), syslogc(8)

HISTORY

The syslogd command appeared in 4.3BSD.

CAVEATS

syslogd does not create files, it only logs to existing ones.
January 2, 2017 OpenBSD-current