format | -l
| -r | -s |
utility displays information about the
file pointed to by file
. Read, write, or
execute permissions of the named file are not required, but all directories
listed in the pathname leading to the file must be searchable. If no argument
is given, stat
displays information about the
file descriptor for standard input.
The information displayed is obtained by calling
with the given argument
and evaluating the returned structure. The default format displays the
fields, in that order.
The options are as follows:
- As in ls(1),
display a slash (/) immediately after each pathname that is a directory,
an asterisk (*) after each that is executable, an at sign (@) after each
symbolic link, an equal sign (=) after each socket, and a vertical bar (|)
after each that is a FIFO. The use of -F
- Display information using the specified format. See the
FORMATS section for a
description of valid formats.
- Use stat(2)
instead of lstat(2). The
information reported by stat will refer to
the target of file, if file is a symbolic
link, and not to file itself.
- Display output in ls
- Do not force a newline to appear at the end of each piece
- Suppress failure messages if calls to
- Display raw information. That is, for all the fields in the
stat-structure, display the raw, numerical value (for example, times in
seconds since the Epoch, etc.).
- Format the output as a line of shell variable
- Display timestamps using the specified format. This format
is passed directly to
- Display information in a more verbose way.
Format strings are similar to
formats in that they
start with %
, are then followed by a sequence of
formatting characters, and end in a character that selects the field of the
struct stat which is to be formatted. If the %
immediately followed by one of n
, then a newline character, a tab character, a
percent character, or the current file number is printed, otherwise the string
is examined for the following:
Any of the following optional flags:
- Selects an alternate output form for octal and hexadecimal
output. Non-zero octal output will have a leading zero, and non-zero
hexadecimal output will have ‘0x’ prepended to it.
- Asserts that a sign indicating whether a number is positive
or negative should always be printed. Non-negative numbers are not usually
printed with a sign.
- Aligns string output to the left of the field, instead of
to the right.
- Sets the fill character for left padding to the 0
character, instead of a space.
- Reserves a space at the front of non-negative signed output
fields. A ‘+’ overrides a space
if both are used.
Then the following fields:
- An optional decimal digit string specifying the minimum
- An optional precision composed of a decimal point
‘.’ and a decimal digit string
that indicates the maximum string length, the number of digits to appear
after the decimal point in floating point output, or the minimum number of
digits to appear in numeric output.
- An optional output format specifier which is one of
F, or S. These
represent signed decimal output, octal output, unsigned decimal output,
hexadecimal output, floating point output, and string output,
respectively. Some output formats do not apply to all fields. Floating
point output only applies to timespec fields (the
a, m, and
The special output specifier S may be used to
indicate that the output, if applicable, should be in string format. May
be used in combination with
- Display date in
- Display actual device name.
- Display group or user name.
- Display the mode of
file as in
- Displays the name of
- Displays the type of
- Insert a “ -> ” into the
output. Note that the default output format for
Y is a string, but if specified
explicitly, these four characters are prepended.
- An optional sub field specifier (high, middle, low). Only
applies to the p,
d, r, and
T output formats. It can be one of the
- High -- specifies the major number for devices from
r or d, the
user bits for permissions from the string form of
p, the file type bits from the numeric
forms of p, and the long output form of
- Low -- specifies the minor number for devices from
r or d, the
other bits for permissions from the string form of
p, the user, group, and other bits from
the numeric forms of p, and the
ls -F style output character for file
type when used with T (the use of
L for this is optional).
- Middle -- specifies the group bits for permissions from
the string output form of p, or the suid,
sgid, and sticky bits for the numeric forms of
- A required field specifier, being one of the following:
The following four field specifiers are not drawn directly from the data in
struct stat, but are:
- Device upon which file
- file's inode number
- File type and permissions
- Number of hard links to
- User-id and group-id of
- Device number for character and block device special
- The time file was last
accessed or modified, or when the inode was last changed, or the birth
time of the inode (st_atime,
st_birthtime). If the file system
does not support birth time, the value is undefined.
- The size of file in
- Number of blocks allocated for
- Optimal file system I/O operation block size
- User defined flags for
- Inode generation number
- The name of the file.
- The file type, either as in ls
-F or in a more descriptive form if the sub field specifier
H is given.
- The target of a symbolic link.
- Expands to
from the rdev field for character or block special devices and gives
size output for all others.
Only the %
and the field specifier are required.
Most field specifiers default to U
as an output
form, with the exception of p
which defaults to
, and c
default to D
; and Y
, and N
default to S
utility exits 0 on success,
and >0 if an error occurs.
Given a symbolic link foo
that points from
would use stat
> stat -F /tmp/foo
lrwxrwxrwx 1 jschauma cs 1 Apr 24 16:37:28 2002 /tmp/foo@ -> /
> stat -LF /tmp/foo
drwxr-xr-x 16 root wheel 512 Apr 19 10:57:54 2002 /tmp/foo/
To initialize some shell-variables, you could use the
flag as follows:
% eval set `stat -s .cshrc`
% echo $st_size $st_mtime
$ eval $(stat -s .profile)
$ echo $st_size $st_mtime
In order to get a list of the kind of files including files pointed to if the
file is a symbolic link, you could use the following format:
$ stat -f "%N: %HT%SY" /tmp/*
/tmp/bar: Symbolic Link -> /tmp/foo
/tmp/output25568: Regular File
/tmp/foo: Symbolic Link -> /
In order to get a list of the devices, their types and the major and minor
device numbers, formatted with tabs and linebreaks, you could use the
stat -f "Name: %N%n%tType: %HT%n%tMajor: %Hr%n%tMinor: %Lr%n%n" /dev/*
Type: Character Device
Type: Character Device
In order to determine the permissions set on a file separately, you could use
the following format:
> stat -f "%Sp -> owner=%SHp group=%SMp other=%SLp" .
drwxr-xr-x -> owner=rwx group=r-x other=r-x
In order to determine the three files that have been modified most recently, you
could use the following format:
> stat -f "%m%t%Sm %N" /tmp/* | sort -rn | head -3 | cut -f2-
Apr 25 11:47:00 2002 /tmp/blah
Apr 25 10:36:34 2002 /tmp/bar
Apr 24 16:47:35 2002 /tmp/foo
utility first appeared in
utility was written by
This man page was written by Jan Schaumann