startx - initialize an X session
[ [ client
... ] [ --
] [ display
script is a front end to xinit
(1) that provides a
somewhat nicer user interface for running a single session of the X Window
System. It is often run with no arguments.
Arguments immediately following the startx
command are used to start a
client in the same manner as xinit
(1). The special argument '--' marks
the end of client arguments and the beginning of server options. It may be
convenient to specify server options with startx to change on a per-session
basis the default color depth, the server's notion of the number of
dots-per-inch the display device presents, or take advantage of a different
server layout, as permitted by the Xorg
(1) server and specified in the
(5) configuration. Some examples of specifying server
arguments follow; consult the manual page for your X server to determine which
arguments are legal.
startx -- -depth 16
startx -- -dpi 100
startx -- -layout Multihead
To determine the client to run, startx
first looks for a file called
in the user's home directory. If that is not found, it uses
the file xinitrc
in the xinit
library directory. If command line
client options are given, they override this behavior and revert to the
(1) behavior. To determine the server to run, startx
looks for a file called .xserverrc
in the user's home directory. If
that is not found, it uses the file xserverrc
in the xinit
library directory. If command line server options are given, they override
this behavior and revert to the xinit
(1) behavior. Users rarely need to
provide a .xserverrc
file. See the xinit
(1) manual page for more
details on the arguments.
The system-wide xinitrc
files are found in the
is typically a shell script which starts many clients
according to the user's preference. When this shell script exits,
kills the server and performs any other session shutdown needed.
Most of the clients started by .xinitrc
should be run in the
background. The last client should run in the foreground; when it exits, the
session will exit. People often choose a session manager, window manager, or
as the ''magic'' client.
Below is a sample .xinitrc
that starts several applications and leaves
the window manager running as the ''last'' application. Assuming that the
window manager has been configured properly, the user then chooses the
''Exit'' menu item to shut down X.
xrdb -load $HOME/.Xresources
xsetroot -solid gray &
xbiff -geometry -430+5 &
oclock -geometry 75x75-0-0 &
xload -geometry -80-0 &
xterm -geometry +0+60 -ls &
xterm -geometry +0-100 &
xconsole -geometry -0+0 -fn 5x7 &
- This variable gets set to the name of the display to which clients should
connect. Note that this gets set, not read.
- This variable, if not already defined, gets set to
$(HOME)/.Xauthority. This is to prevent the X server, if not given
the -auth argument, from automatically setting up insecure
host-based authentication for the local host. See the Xserver(1)
and Xsecurity(7) manual pages for more information on X
- Client to run. Typically a shell script which runs many programs in the
- Server to run. The default is X.
- Client to run if the user has no .xinitrc file.
- Server to run if the user has no .xserverrc file.