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RDOMAIN(4) Device Drivers Manual RDOMAIN(4)

rtable, rdomainrouting tables and routing domains

The traditional kernel routing system had a single table for routes and allowed only non-conflicting IP address assignments. The rtable feature allows multiple lookup tables for routes. The rdomain feature provides a way to logically segment a router between network paths.

Each rtable contains routes for outbound network packets. A routing domain can contain more than one rtable. Multiple routing tables are commonly used for Policy Based Routing.

The highest ID that can be used for an rtable is 255.

Each rdomain is a completely separate address space in the kernel. An IP address (e.g. can be assigned in more than one rdomain, but cannot be assigned more than once per rdomain. An interface belongs to one and only one rdomain. The interface's rdomain determines which rdomain an incoming packet will be in. Virtual interfaces do not need to belong to the same rdomain as the parent. Each rdomain contains at least one routing table.

Network traffic within an rdomain stays within the current routing domain. pf(4) is used to move traffic from one rdomain to a different rdomain.

When an interface is assigned to a non-existent rdomain, it gets created automatically. At the same time an rtable with the same ID and a lo(4) interface with a unit number matching the ID get created and assigned to the new domain.

An rdomain can be deleted by removing all interfaces from it and then destroying the lo(4) interface with the unit number matching the ID.

The highest ID that can be used for an rdomain is 255.

Put em0 and lo4 in rdomain 4:

# ifconfig em0 rdomain 4
# ifconfig lo4 inet
# ifconfig em0

List all rdomains with associated interfaces and routing tables:

$ netstat -R

Set a default route and localhost reject route within rtable 4:

# route -T4 -qn add -net 127 -reject
# route -T4 -n add default

Start sshd(8) in rtable 4:

# route -T4 exec /usr/sbin/sshd

Display the routing table used by each process:

$ ps aux -o rtable

Display the routing table of the current process:

$ id -R

A pf.conf(5) snippet to block incoming port 80, and nat-to and move to rtable 0 on interface em1:

block in on rdomain 4 proto tcp to any port 80
match out on rdomain 4 to !$internal_net nat-to (em1) rtable 0

Delete rdomain 4 again:

# ifconfig em0 -rdomain
# ifconfig lo4 destroy

id(1), netstat(1), ps(1), lo(4), route(4), pf.conf(5), ifconfig(8), route(8)

OpenBSD support for rdomain first appeared in OpenBSD 4.9 and IPv6 support first appeared in OpenBSD 5.5.

No tool is available to assign more than one rtable to an rdomain other than to the default one (0).

An rtable cannot be deleted. Deleting an rdomain will move its rtable into the default rdomain.

July 29, 2022 OpenBSD-current