[OpenBSD]

Manual Page Search Parameters

URAL(4) Device Drivers Manual URAL(4)

NAME

uralRalink Technology/MediaTek USB IEEE 802.11b/g wireless network device

SYNOPSIS

ural* at uhub? port ?

DESCRIPTION

The ural driver supports USB 2.0 wireless adapters based on the Ralink RT2500USB chipset.
The RT2500USB chipset is the first generation of 802.11b/g adapters from Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2570 MAC/BBP and an RT2526 radio transceiver.
These are the modes the ural driver can operate in:
 
 
BSS mode
Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when associating with an access point, through which all traffic passes. This mode is the default.
 
 
IBSS mode
Also known as IEEE ad-hoc mode or peer-to-peer mode. This is the standardized method of operating without an access point. Stations associate with a service set. However, actual connections between stations are peer-to-peer.
 
 
Host AP
In this mode the driver acts as an access point (base station) for other cards.
 
 
monitor mode
In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without associating with an access point. This disables the internal receive filter and enables the card to capture packets from networks which it wouldn't normally have access to, or to scan for access points.
The ural driver can be configured to use Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) or Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK). WPA is the current encryption standard for wireless networks. It is strongly recommended that WEP not be used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless communication, due to serious weaknesses in it. The ural driver relies on the software 802.11 stack for both encryption and decryption of data frames.
The transmit speed is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by the driver depending on the number of hardware transmission retries.
The ural driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot with hostname.if(5).

HARDWARE

The following adapters should work:
AMIT WL532U
 
ASUS WL-167g v1
 
Belkin F5D7050 v2000
 
Buffalo WLI-U2-KG54
 
Buffalo WLI-U2-KG54-AI
 
Buffalo WLI-U2-KG54-YB
 
CNet CWD-854
 
Compex WLU54G 2A1100
 
Conceptronic C54RU
 
D-Link DWL-G122 (b1)
 
Dynalink WLG25USB
 
E-Tech WGUS02
 
Eminent EM3035
 
Gigabyte GN-WBKG
 
Hercules HWGUSB2-54
 
KCORP LifeStyle KLS-685
 
Linksys HU200-TS
 
Linksys WUSB54G v4
 
Linksys WUSB54GP v4
 
MSI MS-6861
 
MSI MS-6865
 
MSI MS-6869
 
Nintendo Wi-Fi USB Connector
 
Nova Tech NV-902W
 
OvisLink Evo-W54USB
 
SerComm UB801R
 
SparkLAN WL-685R
 
Sphairon UB801R
 
Surecom EP-9001-g rev 3A
 
Sweex LC100060
 
Tonze UW-6200C
 
Zaapa ZNWUSB-54
 
Zinwell ZPlus-G250
 
Zinwell ZWX-G261
 
Zonet ZEW2500P
 

EXAMPLES

The following example scans for available networks:
# ifconfig ural0 scan
The following hostname.if(5) example configures ural0 to join network “mynwid”, using WPA key “mywpakey”, obtaining an IP address using DHCP:
nwid mynwid 
wpakey mywpakey 
dhcp
The following hostname.if(5) example creates a host-based access point on boot:
mediaopt hostap 
nwid mynwid 
wpakey mywpakey 
inet 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0

DIAGNOSTICS

ural0: device timeout
A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmission did not complete in time. The driver will reset the hardware. This should not happen.

SEE ALSO

arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), usb(4), hostname.if(5), hostapd(8), ifconfig(8)

HISTORY

The ural driver first appeared in OpenBSD 3.7.

AUTHORS

The ural driver was written by Damien Bergamini <damien.bergamini@free.fr>.

CAVEATS

The ural driver supports automatic control of the transmit speed in BSS mode only. Therefore the use of an ural adapter in Host AP mode is discouraged.
Host AP mode doesn't support power saving. Clients attempting to use power saving mode may experience significant packet loss (disabling power saving on the client will fix this).
June 16, 2016 OpenBSD-current