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HEXDUMP(1) General Commands Manual HEXDUMP(1)

NAME

hexdumpascii, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump

SYNOPSIS

hexdump [-bCcdovx] [-e format_string] [-f format_file] [-n length] [-s offset] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION

The hexdump utility is a filter which displays the specified files, or the standard input, if no files are specified, in a user-specified format.
The options are as follows:
 
 
-b
One-byte octal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen space-separated, three column, zero-filled, bytes of input data, in octal, per line.
 
 
-C
Canonical hex+ASCII display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen space-separated, two column, hexadecimal bytes, followed by the same sixteen bytes in %_p format enclosed in ‘|’ characters.
 
 
-c
One-byte character display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen space-separated, three column, space-filled, characters of input data per line.
 
 
-d
Two-byte decimal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by eight space-separated, five column, zero-filled, two-byte units of input data, in unsigned decimal, per line.
 
 
-e format_string
Specify a format string to be used for displaying data.
 
 
-f format_file
Specify a file that contains one or more newline separated format strings. Empty lines and lines whose first non-blank character is a hash mark (‘#’) are ignored.
 
 
-n length
Interpret only length bytes of input. By default, length is interpreted as a decimal number. With a leading 0x or 0X, length is interpreted as a hexadecimal number, otherwise, with a leading 0, length is interpreted as an octal number.
 
 
-o
Two-byte octal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by eight space-separated, six column, zero-filled, two byte quantities of input data, in octal, per line.
 
 
-s offset
Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input. By default, offset is interpreted as a decimal number. With a leading 0x or 0X, offset is interpreted as a hexadecimal number, otherwise, with a leading 0, offset is interpreted as an octal number. Appending the character b, k, or m to offset causes it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512, 1024, or 1048576, respectively.
 
 
-v
The -v option causes hexdump to display all input data. Without the -v option, any number of groups of output lines, which would be identical to the immediately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets), are replaced with a line comprised of a single asterisk (‘*’).
 
 
-x
Two-byte hexadecimal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by eight, space separated, four column, zero-filled, two-byte quantities of input data, in hexadecimal, per line.
For each input file, hexdump sequentially copies the input to standard output, transforming the data according to the format strings specified by the -e and -f options, in the order that they were specified.

Formats

A format string contains any number of format units, separated by whitespace. A format unit contains up to three items: an iteration count, a byte count, and a format.
The iteration count is an optional positive integer, which defaults to one. Each format is applied iteration count times.
The byte count is an optional positive integer. If specified it defines the number of bytes to be interpreted by each iteration of the format.
If an iteration count and/or a byte count is specified, a single slash (‘/’) must be placed after the iteration count and/or before the byte count to disambiguate them. Any whitespace before or after the slash is ignored.
The format is required and must be surrounded by double quote (" ") marks (the quote mark is a special character in many shell programs, and may have to be escaped from the shell). It is interpreted as a fprintf-style format string (see fprintf(3)), with the following exceptions:
hexdump also supports the following additional conversion strings:
 
 
_a[dox]
Display the input offset, cumulative across input files, of the next byte to be displayed. The appended characters d, o, and x specify the display base as decimal, octal or hexadecimal respectively.
 
 
_A[dox]
Identical to the _a conversion string except that it is only performed once, when all of the input data has been processed.
 
 
_c
Output characters in the default character set. Nonprinting characters are displayed in three character, zero-padded octal, except for those representable by standard escape notation (see above), which are displayed as two character strings.
 
 
_p
Output characters in the default character set. Nonprinting characters are displayed as a single dot ‘.’.
 
 
_u
Output US ASCII characters, with the exception that control characters are displayed using the following, lower-case, names. Other non-printable characters are displayed as hexadecimal strings.
000 nul  001 soh  002 stx  003 etx  004 eot  005 enq 
006 ack  007 bel  008 bs   009 ht   00A lf   00B vt 
00C ff   00D cr   00E so   00F si   010 dle  011 dc1 
012 dc2  013 dc3  014 dc4  015 nak  016 syn  017 etb 
018 can  019 em   01A sub  01B esc  01C fs   01D gs 
01E rs   01F us   07F del
    
The default and supported byte counts for the conversion characters are as follows:
 
 
%_c, %_p, %_u, %c
One byte counts only.
 
 
%d, %i, %o, %u, %X, %x
Four byte default, one, two, four and eight byte counts supported.
 
 
%E, %e, %f, %G, %g
Eight byte default, four byte counts supported.
The amount of data interpreted by each format string is the sum of the data required by each format unit, which is the iteration count times the byte count, or the iteration count times the number of bytes required by the format if the byte count is not specified.
The input is manipulated in “blocks”, where a block is defined as the largest amount of data specified by any format string. Format strings interpreting less than an input block's worth of data, whose last format unit both interprets some number of bytes and does not have a specified iteration count, have the iteration count incremented until the entire input block has been processed or there is not enough data remaining in the block to satisfy the format string.
If, either as a result of user specification or hexdump modifying the iteration count as described above, an iteration count is greater than one, no trailing whitespace characters are output during the last iteration.
It is an error to specify a byte count as well as multiple conversion characters or strings unless all but one of the conversion characters or strings is _a or _A.
If, as a result of the specification of the -n option or end-of-file being reached, input data only partially satisfies a format string, the input block is zero-padded sufficiently to display all available data (i.e., any format units overlapping the end of data will display some number of the zero bytes).
Further output by such format strings is replaced by an equivalent number of spaces. An equivalent number of spaces is defined as the number of spaces output by an s conversion character with the same field width and precision as the original conversion character or conversion string but with any ‘+’, ‘ ’, ‘#’ conversion flag characters removed, and referencing a NULL string.
If no format strings are specified, the default display is equivalent to specifying the -x option.

EXIT STATUS

The hexdump utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

EXAMPLES

Display characters using a fieldwidth of 4, and using special names for control characters:
$ hexdump -e '"%4_u"' file
An example file for use with the -f option, to display the input in perusal format:
"%06.6_ao "  12/1 "%3_u " 
"\t\t" "%_p " 
"\n"
An example file for use with the -f option, which implements the equivalent of the -x option:
"%07.7_Ax\n" 
"%07.7_ax " 8/2 "   %04x " "\n"

SEE ALSO

od(1)

HISTORY

The hexdump utility first appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.
September 12, 2015 OpenBSD-current