— simple text
is a simple text formatter which reads the
concatenation of input files (or standard input if none are given) and
produces on standard output a version of its input with lines as close to the
length as possible without exceeding the
length defaults to 65 and the
to 10 more than the
Alternatively, a single width
parameter can be
specified either by prepending a hyphen to it or by using
. For example, “fmt -w 72”,
“fmt -72”, and “fmt 72 72” all produce identical
output. The spacing at the beginning of the input lines is preserved in the
output, as are blank lines and interword spacing. Lines are joined or split
only at white space; that is, words are never joined or hyphenated.
The options are as follows:
- Center the text, line by line. In this case, most of the
other options are ignored; no splitting or joining of lines is done.
- Treat chars (and no
others) as sentence-ending characters. By default the sentence-ending
characters are full stop (‘
question mark (‘
?’), and exclamation
!’). Remember that some
characters may need to be escaped to protect them from the shell.
- Replace multiple spaces with tabs at the start of each
output line, if possible. number spaces
will be replaced with one tab.
- Try to format mail header lines contained in the input
- Format lines beginning with a
.’ (dot) character. Normally,
fmt does not fill these lines, for
compatibility with troff and nroff.
- Allow indented paragraphs. Without the
-p flag, any change in the amount of
whitespace at the start of a line results in a new paragraph being
- Collapse whitespace inside lines, so that multiple
whitespace characters are turned into a single space (or, at the end of a
sentence, a double space).
- Assume that the input files' tabs assume
number spaces per tab stop. The default
is meant to format mail messages prior to
sending, but may also be useful for other simple tasks. For instance, within
an editor such as vi(1)
following command will reformat a paragraph, evening the lines:
- The character encoding
locale(1). It decides which
byte sequences form characters and what their display width is. If unset
or set to “C”, “POSIX”, or an unsupported value,
each byte except the tab is treated as a character of display width
utility exits 0 on success,
and >0 if an error occurs. The latter happens with invalid options,
insufficient memory, or when an input file is not found or not readable. The
>0 exit value is the sum of all errors up to a maximum of 127; more errors
may occur but the counter will only increment to this number.
command first appeared in
The version described herein is a complete rewrite and appeared in
(added goal length concept)
(wrote this version)
The program was designed to be simple and fast – for more complex
operations, the standard text processors are likely to be more appropriate.
When the first line of an indented paragraph is very long (more than about twice
the goal length), the indentation in the output can be wrong.
is not infallible in guessing what lines are
mail headers and what lines are not.