VL/EISA/PCI SCSI interface
ahc0 at isa?
ahc* at eisa?
ahc* at pci?
This driver provides access to the SCSI bus(es) connected to Adaptec AIC7770,
AIC7850, AIC7860, AIC7870, AIC7880, AIC7890, AIC7891, AIC7892, AIC7895,
AIC7896, AIC7897 and AIC7899 host adapter chips. These chips are found on many
motherboards as well as the following Adaptec SCSI controller cards: 274X(W),
274X(T), 284X, 2910, 2915, 2920, 2930C, 2930U2, 2940, 2940J, 2940N, 2940U,
2940AU, 2940UW, 2940UW Dual, 2940UW Pro, 2940U2W, 2940U2B, 2950U2W, 2950U2B,
19160B, 29160B, 29160N, 3940, 3940U, 3940AU, 3940UW, 3940AUW, 3940U2W, 3950U2,
3960, 39160, 3985, and 4944UW.
Driver features include support for twin and wide buses, fast, ultra, ultra2 and
ultra160 synchronous transfers depending on controller type, tagged queuing,
and SCB paging, and target mode.
Memory mapped I/O can be enabled for PCI devices with the
option. Memory mapped I/O is more efficient than the alternative, programmed
I/O. Most PCI BIOSes will map devices so that either technique for
communicating with the card is available. In some cases, usually when the PCI
device is sitting behind a PCI->PCI bridge, the BIOS may fail to properly
initialize the chip for memory mapped I/O. The typical symptom of this problem
is a system hang if memory mapped I/O is attempted. Most modern motherboards
perform the initialization correctly and work fine with this option enabled.
This is the default mode of operation on every architecture except i386.
Individual controllers may be configured to operate in the target role through
configuration option. The value assigned to this option should be a bitmap of
all units where target mode is desired. For example, a value of 0x25, would
enable target mode on units 0, 2, and 5. A value of 0x8a enables it for units
1, 3, and 7.
Per target configuration performed in the SCSI-Select menu, accessible at boot
EISA models, or through an EISA configuration
utility for EISA models, is honored by this driver. This includes
synchronous/asynchronous transfers, maximum synchronous negotiation rate, wide
transfers, disconnection, the host adapter's SCSI ID, and, in the case of EISA
Twin Channel controllers, the primary channel selection. For systems that
store non-volatile settings in a system specific manner rather than a serial
eeprom directly connected to the aic7xxx controller, the BIOS must be enabled
for the driver to access this information. This restriction applies to all
EISA and many motherboard configurations.
Note that I/O addresses are determined automatically by the probe routines, but
care should be taken when using a 284x (VESA local bus
) in an EISA system. The jumpers setting the I/O area for the
284x should match the EISA slot into which the card is inserted to prevent
conflicts with other EISA cards.
Performance and feature sets vary throughout the aic7xxx product line. The
following table provides a comparison of the different chips supported by the
driver. Note that wide and twin channel
features, although always supported by a particular chip, may be disabled in a
particular motherboard or card design.
Chip MIPS Bus MaxSync MaxWidth SCBs Features
aic7770 10 EISA/VL 10MHz 16Bit 4 1
aic7850 10 PCI/32 10MHz 8Bit 3
aic7860 10 PCI/32 20MHz 8Bit 3
aic7870 10 PCI/32 10MHz 16Bit 16
aic7880 10 PCI/32 20MHz 16Bit 16
aic7890 20 PCI/32 40MHz 16Bit 16 3 4 5 6 7 8
aic7891 20 PCI/64 40MHz 16Bit 16 3 4 5 6 7 8
aic7892 20 PCI/64 80MHz 16Bit 16 3 4 5 6 7 8
aic7895 15 PCI/32 20MHz 16Bit 16 2 3 4 5
aic7895C 15 PCI/32 20MHz 16Bit 16 2 3 4 5 8
aic7896 20 PCI/32 40MHz 16Bit 16 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
aic7897 20 PCI/64 40MHz 16Bit 16 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
aic7899 20 PCI/64 80MHz 16Bit 16 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
- Multiplexed Twin Channel
Device - One controller servicing two buses.
- Multi-function Twin Channel
Device - Two controllers on one chip.
- Command Channel Secondary DMA
Engine - Allows scatter gather list and SCB prefetch.
- 64 Byte SCB Support - SCSI CDB
is embedded in the SCB to eliminate an extra DMA.
- Block Move Instruction Support
- Doubles the speed of certain sequencer operations.
- ‘Bayonet’ style
Scatter Gather Engine - Improves S/G prefetch performance.
- Queuing Registers - Allows
queuing of new transactions without pausing the sequencer.
- Ultra160 support.
- Multiple Target IDs - Allows
the controller to respond to selection as a target on multiple SCSI
Every transaction sent to a device on the SCSI bus is assigned a ‘SCSI
Control Block’ (SCB). The SCB contains all of the information required
by the controller to process a transaction. The chip feature table lists the
number of SCBs that can be stored in on-chip memory. All chips with model
numbers greater than or equal to 7870 allow for the on-chip SCB space to be
augmented with external SRAM up to a maximum of 255 SCBs. Very few Adaptec
controller configurations have external SRAM.
If external SRAM is not available, SCBs are a limited resource. Using the SCBs
in a straight forward manner would only allow the driver to handle as many
concurrent transactions as there are physical SCBs. To fully utilize the SCSI
bus and the devices on it, requires much more concurrency. The solution to
this problem is SCB Paging
, a concept similar to
memory paging. SCB paging takes advantage of the fact that devices usually
disconnect from the SCSI bus for long periods of time without talking to the
controller. The SCBs for disconnected transactions are only of use to the
controller when the transfer is resumed. When the host queues another
transaction for the controller to execute, the controller firmware will use a
free SCB if one is available. Otherwise, the state of the most recently
disconnected (and therefore most likely to stay disconnected) SCB is saved,
via DMA, to host memory, and the local SCB reused to start the new
transaction. This allows the controller to queue up to 255 transactions
regardless of the amount of SCB space. Since the local SCB space serves as a
cache for disconnected transactions, the more SCB space available, the less
host bus traffic consumed saving and restoring SCB data.
The core ahc
driver, the AIC7xxx sequencer-code
assembler, and the firmware running on the aic7xxx chips were written by
Justin T. Gibbs
platform dependent code was written by Steve
P. Murphree, Jr and Kenneth R. Westerback.
Some Quantum drives (at least the Empire 2100 and 1080s) will not run on an
AIC7870 Rev B in synchronous mode at 10MHz. Controllers with this problem have
a 42 MHz clock crystal on them and run slightly above 10MHz. This confuses the
drive and hangs the bus. Setting a maximum synchronous negotiation rate of
8MHz in the SCSI-Select utility will allow normal operation.
Although the Ultra2 and Ultra160 products have sufficient instruction RAM space
to support both the initiator and target roles concurrently, this
configuration is disabled in favor of allowing the target role to respond on
multiple target ids. A method for configuring dual role mode should be
Tagged Queuing is not supported in target mode.
Reselection in target mode fails to function correctly on all high voltage
differential boards as shipped by Adaptec. Information on how to modify HVD
board to work correctly in target mode is available from Adaptec.