|File::Basename(3p)||Perl Programmers Reference Guide||File::Basename(3p)|
File::Basename - Parse file paths into directory, filename and suffix.
use File::Basename; ($name,$path,$suffix) = fileparse($fullname,@suffixlist); $name = fileparse($fullname,@suffixlist); $basename = basename($fullname,@suffixlist); $dirname = dirname($fullname);
These routines allow you to parse file paths into their directory, filename and suffix.
NOTE: "dirname()" and "basename()" emulate the behaviours, and quirks, of the shell and C functions of the same name. See each function's documentation for details. If your concern is just parsing paths it is safer to use File::Spec's "splitpath()" and "splitdir()" methods.
It is guaranteed that
# Where $path_separator is / for Unix, \ for Windows, etc... dirname($path) . $path_separator . basename($path);
is equivalent to the original path for all systems but VMS.
my($filename, $dirs, $suffix) = fileparse($path); my($filename, $dirs, $suffix) = fileparse($path, @suffixes); my $filename = fileparse($path, @suffixes);
The "fileparse()" routine divides a file path into its $dirs, $filename and (optionally) the filename $suffix.
$dirs contains everything up to and including the last directory separator in the $path including the volume (if applicable). The remainder of the $path is the $filename.
# On Unix returns ("baz", "/foo/bar/", "") fileparse("/foo/bar/baz"); # On Windows returns ("baz", 'C:\foo\bar\', "") fileparse('C:\foo\bar\baz'); # On Unix returns ("", "/foo/bar/baz/", "") fileparse("/foo/bar/baz/");
If @suffixes are given each element is a pattern (either a string or a "qr//") matched against the end of the $filename. The matching portion is removed and becomes the $suffix.
# On Unix returns ("baz", "/foo/bar/", ".txt") fileparse("/foo/bar/baz.txt", qr/\.[^.]*/);
If type is non-Unix (see "fileparse_set_fstype") then the pattern matching for suffix removal is performed case-insensitively, since those systems are not case-sensitive when opening existing files.
You are guaranteed that "$dirs . $filename . $suffix" will denote the same location as the original $path.
my $filename = basename($path); my $filename = basename($path, @suffixes);
This function is provided for compatibility with the Unix shell command basename(1). It does NOT always return the file name portion of a path as you might expect. To be safe, if you want the file name portion of a path use "fileparse()".
"basename()" returns the last level of a filepath even if the last level is clearly directory. In effect, it is acting like "pop()" for paths. This differs from "fileparse()"'s behaviour.
# Both return "bar" basename("/foo/bar"); basename("/foo/bar/");
@suffixes work as in "fileparse()" except all regex metacharacters are quoted.
# These two function calls are equivalent. my $filename = basename("/foo/bar/baz.txt", ".txt"); my $filename = fileparse("/foo/bar/baz.txt", qr/\Q.txt\E/);
Also note that in order to be compatible with the shell command, "basename()" does not strip off a suffix if it is identical to the remaining characters in the filename.
Only on VMS (where there is no ambiguity between the file and directory portions of a path) and AmigaOS (possibly due to an implementation quirk in this module) does "dirname()" work like "fileparse($path)", returning just the $dirs.
# On VMS and AmigaOS my $dirs = dirname($path);
When using Unix or MSDOS syntax this emulates the dirname(1) shell function which is subtly different from how "fileparse()" works. It returns all but the last level of a file path even if the last level is clearly a directory. In effect, it is not returning the directory portion but simply the path one level up acting like "chop()" for file paths.
Also unlike "fileparse()", "dirname()" does not include a trailing slash on its returned path.
# returns /foo/bar. fileparse() would return /foo/bar/ dirname("/foo/bar/baz"); # also returns /foo/bar despite the fact that baz is clearly a # directory. fileparse() would return /foo/bar/baz/ dirname("/foo/bar/baz/"); # returns '.'. fileparse() would return 'foo/' dirname("foo/");
Under VMS, if there is no directory information in the $path, then the current default device and directory is used.
my $type = fileparse_set_fstype(); my $previous_type = fileparse_set_fstype($type);
Normally File::Basename will assume a file path type native to your current operating system (ie. /foo/bar style on Unix, \foo\bar on Windows, etc...). With this function you can override that assumption.
Valid $types are "MacOS", "VMS", "AmigaOS", "OS2", "RISCOS", "MSWin32", "DOS" (also "MSDOS" for backwards bug compatibility), "Epoc" and "Unix" (all case-insensitive). If an unrecognized $type is given "Unix" will be assumed.
If you've selected VMS syntax, and the file specification you pass to one of these routines contains a "/", they assume you are using Unix emulation and apply the Unix syntax rules instead, for that function call only.
dirname(1), basename(1), File::Spec